KBT wordlist

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aang1: 'cork lid' aang2: 'tool used for gouging wood, adze with straight blade' (cf. bikung),


aar1: bellows': naar (in-aar) 'the process of metal toolmaking: the process of

      using the bellows to pump air in blacksmithing' 

aar2: 'carefully woven rattan twine used in tying; woven raltan work used on

      implements':  naar ( 'to make rattan work', naar (in-aar) 'preterite 
      passive of naar' 

abad: 'plant with long leaves and fruit which grows in bunches in wet places' aban1: 'because; unless' aban2: 'quarrel over possession of something (property, two men over a

       woman, etc.)': pepaban (pep-aban) 'quarrel with one another' 

abang: 'ditch, canal' nabang 'make a ditch' abet: 'way of tying; thing used for tying': ngabet (ng-abet) 'to tie'; pengabet

      'thing use for tying'; pinengabet 'was used  as a thing for tying';   senabet (CB) 'was used to tie' (cf. bebhed) 

abi: last one'; abi-abi: 'all, every one'; mabi (m-abi) 'finished'; ngabi 'to finish' (cf. pengeh ) abuh: 'ashes'; mabuh (m-abuh) 'dusty, covered with dust or ashes': nabuh (in-abuh) 'was cover by dust or ashes'; ngabuh 'make dusty, cover with dust or ashes' pabuh (p-abuh) 'throw dust on one another (of two persons or many people)' (cf. labuh) ada': 'soul. ghost. spirit (cf. iat) adel1: 'buffalo flea' (cf. gesimel, kutuh, li?a, tumeh) adel2: 'lock' aden: 'starting line or block for footrace; starting point' adeng: 'charcoal used in blacksmithing' (cf. rereng) ading: 'earwax' (cf. ta?ih lalid ) aduk: 'ostentation' (?): aduk-aduk 'showing off adung: 'adoption'; dungen 'aorist passive of ngadung'; ngadung 'to adopt' agag: 'a sieve'; nagag 'to sieve (esp. rice that has already been husked .through pounding on the iung)' agap:(JU)'a shock: way .of startling'; ngagap 'startle someone' (cf. gagap)


ager: 'crumbs left after a meal' ain: 'sweet taste'; da?et ain 'bad taste (= not sweet tasting)'; main (m-ain) 'sweet';doo? main 'delicious' aja: 'penis plug (bamboo plug traditionally inserted through the glans penis) aka: 'cleared area'; naka (in-aka) 'was cleared by'; ngaka (ng-aka) 'to clear an area, make a clearing' aka': 'saliva' (cf. lidha?) akat: 'bravery, courage'; makal (m-akat) 'brave, courageous' akep: 'black snail found in the river' (cf. kereruang, keruang) akun: 'admission'; ngakun 'admit fault' alad: 'wall'; ngalad 'miakc a wall, build a wall' alang(CB): 'back of knife blade, edge': ngalar) (ng-alag) 'hit wilh the blunt.side of a knife' j alap: 'act of taking, getting or fetching'; nalap (in-alap) 'was fetched by'; ngalap (ng-alap) 'take, get, fetch' ala': (see simun) aleb: 'knee' alem: 'night'; temalem (tem-alem or te-malem?) 'spend a night' (cf. malem) ali (CB): (?): da?et ali 'deserted, of a place that has been abandoned; quiet, of a place' alid: 'steep slope (not as rugged as beribhi)' (cf. beribhi, ra?an) alih1: 'pregnancy'; malih (m-alih) 'pregnant (coarse term which implies that the child will not be legitimate)'; ngalih (ng-alih)'impregnate' (cf. ngeren) alih2: 'a taboo'; malih (m-alih) 'be taboo' (cf. eren) ali' (JU): 'accumulated dirt on skin, as behind the ears' alud: 'dugoul canoe, boat; ngalud (ng-alud) 'carry things in a boat' alug: lie, untruth'; malug (em-alug) 'play a trick on someone to deceive them, lie; a lie': pemalug (pem-alug) liar; false story'; pepalug (pep-alug) lie to one another' aluh1: 'eight' (cf. waluh) aluh2: long wooden rice, pestle' (cf. tutuk) alung(CB): 'fern-like plant' amug: 'meadow; previously farmed area, abandoned farmland' anak: 'child, baby', a.dela?ih 'boy'; a. dedhur 'girl'; a. kadi? 'small child'; a. menaken 'nephew, niece': a. nanap(in-alap) 'adopted child'; a. sia? new-born baby'; nenganak (ng-teng-anak) 'give birth'; tenganak (teng-anak) 'date of birth' anam (CB): 'act of picking something up from the ground'; nanam (ne-anam?)

          (CB) 'pick up with the fingers'; nganam (ng-anam) 'pick something up from the ground' 

aney: 'termite' (see rera?) anit: 'tree bark, pig .skin (rude when used for people)'; nganit (ng-anit) 'make an expedition into the jungle to skin bark from trees' (ef. kubil, lanit) anud: 'current, direction of flow'; manud (em-anud) 'to flow; move on the

       current': manud medayeh 'upriver'; manud mela?ud 'downriver' (cf. awer) 

anuk: 'clothing'; nganuk(ng-anuk) 'put on clothing' (cf. kelibung) angang: 'barking of dog, sound of a dog barking': ngangang 'to bark, of a dog" angat: 'small branch' (cf. da?an) angai: 'kind of small porcelain jar' (cf. belanay) ange': 'bee-like insect that does not bite or sting. Children hold up the little finger for this insect to come and land on' (see bua?) anget: 'kind of bee' apad: 'mountain range' (cf. buduk, puun) apa': 'to take' (cf. alap, apen) apeh: 'which?' (cf. sapeh) apen: 'to take' (cf. alap. apa') aping1(JU): 'outside' (cf. lai) aping2 (PM): 'ends of something, as a longhouse' apo: 'roof; apo kenangan 'roofing material made from nipa palm leaf'; ngapo (ng-apo) 'make a roof ' apuk1: 'fine ashes or dusi in the air, sawdust; facial powder'; mapuk (m-apuk) 'dusty': napuk (in-apuk) 'was made dusty'; ngapuk (ng-apuk) 'make something dusty' apuk2: 'cotton' I apung: 'act of hiding a thing; thing hidden'; mapung (m-apung) 'hidden'; napung: in-apung) 'was hididen by'; ngapung (ng-apung) 'hide something or oneself (Intentionally)', perengapunget)agur)(pere-ng-apung)'hide oneself apuy: 'fire' a'eb(CB): lid of a basket (cf. kekeb) a'ed(JU): 'speech defect; ma?ed (em-a?ed) 'speak defectively, stutter' a'it1: 'sickness, pain'; ma?it (m-a?it) 'sick, painful'; ma?it lipen 'tooth-ache ;ma?it uluh 'headache' a'it2: 'wait'; na?it (ne-a?it) 'wait for', pepa?it (pep-a?it) 'wait for each other' (cf. ta?it) a'ud1: 'wall hook on which objects are hung' (cf. edhang2) a'ud2: 'tool for clearing' arak1: 'rice wine' arak2(PM):'bamboo railing or handhold to give support when descending steps or crossing a bridge'; ngarak (ng-arak) 'to guide by the hand, as a blind man' arang: 'a dance'; ngarang (ng-arang) 'to dance' ara' (PM): 'don't want' (said to be more usual than dara?, q.v.) arar1: 'bamboo cage-like structure in which meat is placed for smoking': nga-rar (ng-arar) 'to smoke or dry meat over a fire' arar2: 'nest'; ngarar (ng-arar) 'make a nest' (cf. tenuran) areg: 'fragment, small piece of something broken'; mareg (m-areg) 'brokensmall pisces, fragmented, ngareg (ng-areg) 'break somethinginto small pieces' arit (JU): 'design'; ngarit (ng-arit) 'make designs, as on a shield' aru': 'casuarina' (see kayuh) arur: 'stream, small branch of a river'; r)arur ( r)-arur) 'follow along a steam or river' asa: 'whetting, grinding, sharpening'; asa asa 'scratch oneself against a tree, of carabaos'; ngasa (ng-asa) to sharpen (as a knife') (cf. i'ir, tadem) asab: 'falling sickness, epilepsy'; masab (m-asab) 'epileptic' asang1: 'gills of a fish' asang2: 'tall woven basket' aseg: 'water that has been added to the rice that has been used to make rice wine (this gives a second, diluted batch of rice wine)' asek: 'pineapple fiber (formerly used for sewing)' asih: 'pretense': asih asih 'pretend, as to pretend not to see another person whom you consider beneath you' asi': 'stinginess, selfishness': asi? asi? 'stingy, selfish': masi? (m-asi?) 'stingy' aso: 'procrastination': aso aso 'put off doing something that someone has ask-ed you to do because you dislike having been asked to do [[it' asu': 'stool' atang (CB): 'crossbeam in house construction'; ngatang (n-atang) 'carry something on a pole between two people' ata': 'rice grains with a husk among the husked grains after pounding' atey1: 'liver': ate rua? lungs': ate buduk 'heart' atey2: 'death'; mate (m-ate) 'die. dead', nate (in-ate) 'was killed'; ngate (ng-ate) 'kill', petate (pep-ate) 'kill each other' (cf. pate) ateb: 'deadfall trap for small animals such as rats and squirrels' atet: 'clitoris' (cl.pengi?) atir (CB): 'area just inside the front of the rice granary (not the storage area proper)' atok: '(very? )' (said lo be rare: see si'it) atur1(JU): 'generation, age group' atur2(CB): 'an order, command'; ngatur (ng-atur) 'to order, command' (cf. turu?) atoi: 'a swing': petatuy (pet-atuy?) 'to swing like a pendulum'; metatuy (ng-pet-atuy) 'make something swing like a pendulum' awa: 'awe; disappointment, regret'; mawa (m-awa) 'awed: disappointed,feeling regret' awan: 'spouse' awa': 'waist awer: 'rapids, fast flowing part of the river'; mawer (m-awer) 'swift' (cf anud) ayek: 'a whisper': ngayek(ng-ayek) 'to whisper' pepayek(pep-ayek) 'whis- per to one another ayu1: 'expression corresponding to "you're it", used by children chasing one another in game' ayu2: 'predictable'; doo? ayu 'clever, smart': mayu(m-ayu?) likely, probable' ayud: 'writing'; ngayud (ng-ayud) 'write' (cf. nulis, urit) ayum: 'affection'; ngayum(ng-ayum) 'say something in affection, sym-paltlize' ayun: 'shadow' ayu': 'just, only; always. habitually'

B baang: 'place for storing small logs behind the fireplace' baa?: 'wet; wet rice field babeh: 'carrying basket that is worn on the beck, with a tumpline over the

                forehead'; binabeh (b-in-abeh) 'was carried on the back'; mabeh 


                'to carry on the back' (cf. bakang, binen, uyut) 

babuy (CB): 'male, of pigs' (see berek; cf. la?ih) bada: 'sand' bada?1: 'advice'; binada? (b-in-ada?) 'was advised by'; mada? (ng-bada?)

                'advise, tell, instruct': pebada? (pep-bada?) 'advise one 

another, tell each

                 other'; tebada?(te-bada?)'advice' 

bada?2: (PM): 'invitation' badil: 'child's toy weapon of bamboo for shooting other children in play': bedilen (baldilen) 'aorist passive of madil'; binadil (b-in-adil), pinadil (p-in-adil) 'was shot by': madil (ng-badil) 'to shoot; to hunt using guns' (cf. ngeraad ) baduk: 'jackfruit' (see bua?) baka: 'wild pig' (cf. berek) bakang: 'wide apart, of the feet while standing': tebakang (te-bakang) 'be wide

              apart, of the feet whilel standing'; nebakar) (n-te-bakar)) 'make 


              else's feet wide apart, spread someone's legs, force apart 

forceps: stand over

              someone or something  with feet wide apart'; simbakang 


              'preterite passive of. neakang' 

bakul (CB): 'basket that is carried in the hanfi' (Makay loan?) baku?: 'cute (of babies, of ornaments that represent animals, birds, etc.)' bala: 'news, fame; famous'; belaan (bala-an) 'saying, telling'; binala (b-in-ala)

              'was said by, was told by': mala(n-bala) 'say, tell, talk about' 

balang: 'tiger' baleh: 'debt'(cf.utang) balih: 'a lie: lying, deceitful, untruthful'; malih (ng-balih) to lie, be deceitful' baliw1: 'change form. metamorphose, as a caterpillar into a butterfly; hatch, as

               an egg' 

baliw2 (I'M): 'warp' balu? (CB): 'provisions, food given to someone when he departs on a jour-

              ney': nebalu? (ne-balu? ) 'give provisions to someone going on a 

journey' bangeh: 'water trough (for pigs, dogs)' banget: 'sea. ocean' ba?an: 'bearing fruit, flowering' (cf. busuk) ba?o (CB): 'beads' ba?ung: 'banana' ba?ur (CB): 'fishing pole; trip stick in an ebhung, noose trap' bara?: 'swell, become swollen or inflamed' barat 'veranda, porch-like area where the edhan rests and where firewood is


bareh: 'emiber, glowing coal' baring: (see bulu?) barit: 'striped, colorful' (see bulu?) bariw: 'strong wind. storm wind' (see udan) basa?: 'way of reading, act of reading'; binasa? (b-in-asa?) 'was read by':

               kebasa? (ke-basa?) 'way of reading'; masa? (ng-basa?)'to read' 



batang: log, tree trunk' bata?: 'green (as grass), blue (as (he sky)' batek: 'abdomen' batuh: 'stone'; binatuh [b-in-atuh) 'cemetery' baur (CB): 'full after eating, satiated'; maur (ng-baur) 'to satiate someone, feed

               someone to the point of satiation' 

bawang1: 'onion' bawang2: 'settlement, village, country' baweh: 'enemy'; (pep-baweh) 'be enemies with one another' (cf.

                bunu?)             ! 

bayang: 'goatskin armor formerly used hy warriors when going lo battle' bayar (CB): 'pay' (Malay loan) bayeh: 'crocodile' bayuh: (see bulu?) bayung: 'a spear': mayung (ng-bayur)'to spear' (cf. buso) bebhak (CB): 'torn (aa shirt, pants, mosquito net)'; bibhak (be-i-bhak) 'was bebhan: 'bird-lime stick used to catch birds'; mebhan (ng-bebhan) 'catch birds

                 with the bird-lime stick' 

bebha?: 'urine; urinate' (cf. ebhah) bebhat: 'a share, division'; bibhat (be-i-bhat). binibhat(b-in-e-i-bhat) 'was shar-

                 ed or divided by': mebhat (ng-bebhat) 'to share, divide' 

bebhed (CB): 'a bundle, as of firewood: what is used to tie something into a

                 bundle': b. kayuh 'bundle of wood': bibhed (be-i-bhed) 'was 

tied by winding

                 around': mebhed (ng-bebhed) 'tie by winding around (bundles,  

bandage on

                 limbs, etc.)' (cf. abet. pehhed) 

bebhek1: 'rice fragments left after pounding; finely pounded, crushed into fine

                 particles, of rice'; bibhek (be-i-bhek)  'was broken into 

small panicles';

                 mebhek (ng-bebhek) 'break something into small particles, 

pound something

                 fine' (cf. berebhek) 

bebhek2: 'talkative' behhen1: 'closing by covering': bibhen( be-i-bhen) 'preterite passive of

                 mebhen'; mebhen (ng-bebhen) 'close the mouth or opening of a 

container or

                 bamboo by covering (deliberate action)' 

bebhen2: 'sink into the ground as a result of human intervention (of house

                 posts)': bibhen (b-e-i-bhen) 'preterite passive of 

mebhen'.mebhen (ng-bebhen)

                 'make something sink into the ground' 

bebher: 'woven mat fan for fanning the fire; flutter in the wind'; bibher

                 (be-i-bher) 'was fanned by'; mebher (ng-bebherl) 'to fan the 

fire bebho: 'cool off the temper, after getting angry or crying)' bedhek: 'nasal mucus' bedhi?: 'vulva, vagina' (cf. edhi?) bedhuk: 'short-tailed yullow-brown monkey, probably Macacus nemestrinus'

                 (cf. berangad , kelabet.  kuyad) 

begheh: 'dumb, mute, unable lo speak' bekaar: 'sit cross-legged' (cf. tudo) bekakit (I'M): 'turn something over, as glass or a vase' bekang (JU): 'large carrying basket worn on the back' (cf'. babeh. binen, uyut) beken: 'other: different, behaving differently than usual' bekukit (PM): 'fall over headfirst while squatting' bekuku?(PM): 'kneel' belad: 'spread open': bilad (be-i-lad) 'was spread open by'; melad (ng-belad)

                   'to spread open, as linen' 

beladan1: 'the entire platform is built on the support posts and which

                   forms the floor of the longhouse' 

beladan2: 'turtle. tortoise' belanay: 'four-foot high porcelain jar used for storing corn or making rice


belang: 'small cut' :melang (ng-belang) 'cut someone' belatik: 'spring-set arrow trap for animals' belatu?: 'outstanding: conspicuous, obvious' belawan: 'iron (metal)' belel: 'a float used on fishing lines' (cf. lupung) belen: 'log props under wooden chair' belih: 'buying'; bilih (be-i-lih) 'was bought by': melih(ng-belih) 'to buy,

                    pebelih (pep-belih) 'trade with one another' 

beliw: 'slip from the hand, as when someone falls and grasps for support, but

                    cannot hold it; biliw. (be-i-liw) 'preterite passive of  

ng-beliw'; meliw

                    (ng-beliw) let go of something' (cf. peliw) 

belu?ing: 'hoe used for tilling and weeding in rice paddies and gardens' benang (CD): 'coffin' (cf. lungun) beneh: 'low' bengar: 'planks that form the beladan, or floor platform of the longhouse' bengel: 'deaf bengelih: 'canine tooth, tusk' bengil (CB): 'ankle' bera: 'husked rice' berang: 'width (of a river, house, field)' berangad(CB): 'small, gray. long-tailed monkey similar to kuyad' beraok: ' large frog' (cf. epit, teleka?) bera?ang: 'molar tooth' berat: 'heavy' bere: 'thing given'; bire (be-i-re) 'was given by'; mere (ng-bere) 'give'; pebere

                     (pep-bere) 'give to one another, exchange gifts' 

berebhek (CB): 'piece of broken stone'; merebhek (ng-berebhek) 'break a stone

                       into small pieces, crush pulverize' (cf. bebhek) 

berek: 'domesticated peg'; b. babuy 'male pig, boar'; b. sinan 'female pig,

                     sow' (cf. baka)        I 

berenuan: 'kind of small bee' berere: 'jungle swamp with red lateritic soil' beret: 'woman's waist band of beads' (cf.eret) beribhi: 'steep slope' (cf. alid, ra?an) berirang: 'striking edge on matchbox' (Malay loan) beriwer: 'twirling (of a bullroarer)'; meriwer (ng-beriwer) 'to twirl' beruang: 'the Malayan honey bear: Ursus Malayanus' beruh: 'new: just now: again' besai: 'canoe paddle' (loan, probably from a Kenyah dialect)' besit: 'squirt out' (of pus from, a pimple when squeezed) beter: 'kidney' beti: 'calf of the leg' betik: 'tattoo' betua: (?);b. idhung 'wing of the nostril' betueh: 'stomach (internal organ)' betung: (see bulan, bulu?) bibek: 'domesticated duck' (Malay loan) bibir: 'lip' bigan (CB): 'plate' (Malay loan) bikung: 'tool used to smooth wood surfaces, adze'; mikung.(ng-bikur) 'work

                      with an adze' (cf. aang) 

bilak: 'piece of split wood, rattan or bamboo'; milak (ng-bilak) to split wood,

                      rattan or bamboo lengthwise' (cf. upa) 

bila?: 'broken, split (state)'; benila? (b-in-ila?) 'preterite passive of bila?';

                      mila? (ng-bila?) 'to break, split something' 

bilun (JU): 'airplane' (English 'balloon') binen: 'kind of small carrying basket' (cf. babeh.bakar), uyul) bi?ung (CB): 'kind of gourd that is used as a container' birar: 'yellow' biruh: 'appearance, features; outward signs'; doo? b. 'good appearance (of

                      people, baskets, pots)' 

bisung: 'hit a person with a stick by accident, as a child playing with a


buang (CB): 'beetle (generic)' bua?: 'fruit; integral part of'; b. buyo 'orange': b. buyo duru? 'small sweet

                      variety of orange'; b. buyo pada 'lemon'; b. datu? 

'durian'; b. pangin 'fruit of

                      the mango family'; b. laam 'mango'; b. tabuh b. tedhak 

'pumpkin': bua?

                      tidhu? 'fingers'; bua? t. rayeh 'thumb', bua? t. tidhul 

'index finger', bua? t.

                      uned 'middle finger', bua? t. sising 'ring finger', bua? 

t. dara? 'ring finger',

                      bua? t. ange? 'little finger', bua? t. i?it 'little 

finger', b. tikan 'honeybee'. buar: 'struck by something falling'; muar (ng-buar) 'hit with something' buat1(CB): 'character, personality buat2: 'gossip, idle talk'; muat (ng-buat) 'to gossip'; pebuat (pep-buat) 'tall

                      about one another 

bube?: 'defecate' (cf. tae?) bubuh1 (CB): 'bamboo basket trap for fish. placed with mouth upstream' bubuh2(CB): 'move, charge location': mubuh (ng-bubuh) to move' bubhuk (CB): 'tree from which leaves are taken to make a poultice for the

                      relief of rheumatic pains, sprains, bruises, etc.' 

bubhul (CB): 'a patch'; mubhul (ng-bubhul) 'to patch, mend' bubhun1: 'campfire; fire used for glazing pots' (= bubhun2?) bubhun2(CB): 'heap, pile (of earth, sticks, etc.)'; mubhun (ng-bubhun) 'make a

                       heap or pile of earth, sticks, etc.' 

bubhu ?: 'door'; rnubhu? (ng-bubhu?) 'make a hole by piercing through' bubhut: 'feathers that have been plucked from a chicken; plucking, pulling'

                      binubhut (b-in-ubhut) 'was plucked by'; mubhut (r)-bubh 

t) 'pluck, pull out.

                      as feathers' 

buda?: 'white' budud: 'sword grass .lmperara clindrica'(cf.uduh) buduk: 'cone, peak of a mountain, lip of the nose, lip of a pen'; buduk ruma?

                     'ridgepole' (cf. apad, puun) 

bued: 'source', b.ebha? 'spring, source of a river' buen: 'odor, smell of something', b. kedi?it 'a little smell'; beruh buen 'weak

                   (lit.  'new') smell'; da?et buen 'bad smell', doo?  buen 

'good smell'; galih

                   buen 'strong smell'; binuen (b-in-uen) 'was smelled by'; 

muen (ng-buen) 'M

                   smell something' 

bugo: 'flat piece of wood used to stir rice' bui: 'soft breeze: have a soft breez.e blowing' bujur: 'distended, of the belly (also used as a personal epithet)' bukuh1: 'book' (English loan) bukuh2: 'joint of finger or bamboo: node; knot in a tree, sebukuh (se-bukuh)

                 'knot in a string: string with knots for keeping track of 

time': nebukuh

                 (ng-se-bukuh)'tie a knot' (cf. bukuh) 

bukut: 'a punch': binukut (b-in-ukut) 'was punched by': mukul (ng-bukut)'to

                punch': pemukut (peng-bukut)  'thing used to punch (as a glove, 


                pebukut (pep-bukut) 'punch one another' (cf. nguarn) 

bulan: 'moon': b. betung 'full moon' bulat: 'open the eyes': binulat (b-in-ulat) 'was looked at by'; mulat (ng-bulat)

                look at someone or something': pebulat (pep-bulat) look at one 

another' buleng: 'single, lone': anak buleng 'only child': sebuleng (se-buleng) 'alone';

                nebuleng (ng-se-buleng) 'keep something (as a problem) to 

oneself, not sharing

                it with others' (cf.  uleng) 

buluh1: 'body hair; leather': buluh mateh 'eyelash'; buluh madu? 'eyebrow' buluh2 (PM): 'love': pebuluh (pep-buluh) love one another' bulu?: 'bamboo': b. baring 'small species of bamboo used by children to make

                 blowpipes'; b. barit 'thin yellow bamboo species with green 

lines': b. bayuh

                 'thin, small species of bamboo which gives bad cuts': b. 

betung large, thick

                 species of bamboo'; b. eling 'bamboo species smaller than b. 

betung'; b. telang

                 'medium-sized species of bamboo' 

buned: 'powder' bunu?: 'enemy': rnunu? (ng-bunu?) 'go to war': pebunu? (pep-bunu?)'go to

                   war against each other' (cf. baweh) 

bunga? (CB): 'cultivated flower' (probably a Malay loan; cf. busak) bunga?an: 'bladder' bupu? (CB): 'washing'; binupu? (b-in-upu?) 'was washed by'; mupu?

                     (ng-bupu?)'to wash' (cf. pupu?) 

bu?an (CB): 'round rattan carrying container worn on the back' bu?uh: 'anger'; binu?uh (b-in-u?uh) 'be the object of someone's anger';

                     perebu?uh(pere-bu?uh ) 'be anger with' 

burak: 'rice wine' buro (JU): 'send away, chase away'; muro (ng-buro) 'send someone away, scare

                     off birds or animals, as from the fields' 

buruk: 'rotten' buru?: 'washed off, as paint from a wall'; seburu? (se-buru?) 'wash one's


burur (JU): 'body: counting classifier for people' busak: 'wild I'lowcr, flowering, as a tree' (cf. ba?an,bunga?) buser: 'blind', muser (ng-buser) 'to blind someone' buso: 'a spear' (cf. mayung) butal: 'bald' (cf. pango) butan: 'coconut' (see bua?) buta?: 'sleep in the eye, mucus in the comer of the eye' butung: 'corpse, carcass, dead body' butu?: 'penis' buyo: 'citrus fruit' (see bua?) buyur (JU): 'too long, as fhe sleeves of a shirt or the legs of a pair of trousers':

                   muyur (ng-buyur) 'lengthen' 

D daan: 'hut in the ricefield where people stay to scare away birds' dadan: 'old, of things; long, of time, dadan dadan 'for a long time' (cf. ngered,

               ma?un)                I 

dadang: 'heat rom a fire, be exposed to heat (as a person sitting near a fiire)';

               nadang (ng-dadang) 'to heat'; sinadang (d-in-adang) 'was heated 

by' dadem: 'feverish, sick' I dalan: 'path, road'; nalang (ng-dalan) 'to walk'; delanan (dalan-an) 'path made

               by repeated walking over the same course'; medalan (me-dalan?) 


               someone walk' 

dalem: 'deep' inedalem (ng-dalem) 'deepen' dalid: 'ear' (dialect form; cf. lalid) daluh (CB): 'a fight, quarrel'; pedaluh (pep-daluh) 'to fight, quarrel with one

                    another' (cf. kedaluh) 

dame: (see lau?) dapo (CB): 'walk or talk in one's sleep' dapur: 'kitchen' (Malay loan) da?an: 'branch, bough of a tree' (cf. angat) da?ar: live twig (cf. raka?)' da?eh: 'chin. jaw' da?et: 'bad'; dina?et(d-in-a?et) 'was damaged by'; pada?et(pep-da?et)

                 'say something bad about one another' 

da?un: 'leaf (cf. rudang) dara?1: 'blood'; dera?en (dara?-en) 'bleeding, as the gums' (see bua?, cf.


dara?2: 'don't, don't want' (cf. ara?, ian) dari: 'fine. small' (see peretak) datu?: (see bua?) dawan: lamp, torch' (cf. lapung) dawa?: 'a libel suit'; ngedawa? (ng-dawa?) 'sue someone' dayeh: 'upriver, toward the interior'; pedayeh (pe-dayeh) 'upriver (loc.)';

                   medayeh (me-dayeh) 'go upriver' 

dayung(PM): 'trance' dedhak (CB): way of slapping or tamping something to make it more compact';

                       kededhak (kededhak)  'way of slapping or lamping 

something'; nedhak

                      (ng-dedhak) 'when constructing a levee in the paddy 

field, to slap the wet clay

                      with a large paddle or club to make it more compact; 

prior to wrapping

                      cooked rice in leaf packages, to pat, squeeze and press 

the rice into a compact

                      mass using a small wooden paddle (bugo)' 

dedhar (CB): 'be struck, as by a falling object' (cf. dedhat) dedhek (CB): 'struck, as by something that someone throws at you; way of

                        throwing something at someone'; nedhek (ng-dedhek) 

'throw any object

                        (stone, mud, book) at someone or something' 

dedhem (CB): 'darkness, dark'; ngededhem (nge-dedhen) 'wait for nightfall'

                        (cf. m-alem) 

dedhen: 'pushing down': nedhen (ng-dedhen) 'push down' dedher: 'small tree, sapling; slick' dedhur: 'female (human); woman' (cf. sinan) dekaan: 'term of intimacy used with relatives' deket1: 'fish that moves from boulder to boulder in the river' (probably =

                     deket2,. from its habit of "sticking" to the rocks) 

deket2: 'sticky': neket (ng-deket) 'stick something to something': siket

                     (de-i-ket) 'pruterite passive ol neket' (cf. pedeket) 

dela?ih: 'male' (cf. la?ih) dele: 'corn' delo (JU): 'kind of long eel' (cf. duder) demulun: 'slave, servant' (cf. dulun, lemulun, paran) denak (JU): 'suddenly'; medenak (me-denak) 'to startle or surprise someone' denganeh (CB): (?) d. puar 'brother or sister by a second marriage: half

                             brother, half sister' 

dengur: ' low-pitched (as the voice)' (cf. leki?) depar: 'back of the hand. top of the foot'; depar tidhu?, l 'back of the hand' depeh: 'fathom, distance between two outstretched arms' (cf. urek) deramih (CB): 'rice straw' (cf. geramih) deredhang: 'epiphytic fern' (cf. redhang) deteluh: 'they (trial)' (cf. diweh, ideh) dian: 'candle' dila?: 'tongue' dinger: 'way of listening; hearing'; ninger (ng-dinger) 'to hear, listen to';peninger

                  (peng-dinger)  'thing used to hear or listen with';  sininger 

(d-in-inger) 'was

                   heard by, was listened to by' 

dingi (CB): 'opposite side; pedingi (pe-dingi) 'on the opposite side' (cf. dipar) dipar: 'opposite side; there (in polite speech, esp. when referring to the loca-

                    tion of a house)': d. dingi (CB) 'opposite bank'; d. ebha? 

'other side of the

                    river' (cf. dingi) 

direm: 'purple, color of a piit' (cf. milem) diri: 'housepost' dita?: 'high, tall' diu?: 'bathe oneself; siniu? (d-in-iu?) (CB) 'was bathed by'; niu? (ng-diu?)

                   'bathe a baby or disabled adult'; ken diu? teh X 'a formal 

greeting meaning;

                    'how is X'?' 

diweh: 'they (dual)' (cf. deteluh, ideh) doo?: 'good': ngedoo? (nge-doo?) 'to make good (after a quarrel, sickness,


duder: 'small freshwater eel that is good to eat' (cf. delo) dueh: 'two' duket: 'to perch (of a bird)'


dulun (CD): 'other people' (cf. demulun, ideh, lemulun) duru? : 'honey'

E ebol (CB): 'ball' (English loan) ebha: 'fall (n.), fall from a height': mebha (em-ebha) 'to fall, of people or

                 animals  falling  accidentally:  not  used  of leaves';  

ngebha? (ng-cbha)

                 'deliberately push down' 

ebha?: 'water (fresh or salt); river; juice of fruit or meat'; e. rudheng 'oil (from

                  animal fat)'; ba?en (ebha?-en) 'aorisi passive of ngebha?;  


                  'remove the water, as from a pond to better catch the fish in 

it: add water, as

                  to rice when cooking': sibha? (t-e-i-bha?) 'was watered by' 

(cf. bebha?;


ebhar: loincloth' ebhed (CB): 'tag'; ebhed ebhed 'game of tag played by children' ebheg (CB): 'pulp of tapioca, coconut, etc. that has been squeezed by. twisting

                    in a cloth': ngebheg (ng-ebheg)'to squeeze the pulp of 

tapioca, etc.' ebheh (CB): 'where?' (cf. ngapeh) ebhen1: 'accusation': ngebhen (ng-ebhen) 'accuse' ebhen2: 'sinking into the earth'; ibhen (e-i-bhen) 'having sunk into the earth (of

                  house posts)': mebhen (em-ebhen) 'sink into the earth 

(unintentional action)';

                  ngebhen (ng-ebhen) 'push a stick into the ground, a needle 

into the skin, etc.' ebheng: large bridge; levee, water break in a paddy field' (cf. tadur) ebho: 'act of soothing someone's emotions, as those of a crying baby'; boen

                   (ebho-en) 'soothe (passive/imperative)' 

ebhu (CB): 'cover, wrapping'; ngebhu' (ng-ebhu) to cover' ebhud (CB): 'push something (as rubbish) with the instep of the foot' ebhuh1: 'act of refusing attention after being ignored, as a child'; mebhuh

                    (ern-ebhuh) 'refuse attention after being ignored' 

ebhuh2: 'any length between two joints of the finger, a fingertip and a joint or

                     a knuckle and a joint' 

ebhuk: 'head hair' ebhu1(CB): 'skewer for roasting meat'; ngebhul (ng-ebhul) 'to skewer, as meat

                    for roasting' 

ebhung: 'noose trap of string used to catch birds or small animals'; ngebhung

                   (ng-ebhung) 'catch birds oi small animals with a noose trap' 

edhan: 'notchod log ladder for entering and exiting from longhouse'; nedhan

                   (ne-edhan) 'put a ladder up'; ngedhan (ng-edhan) 'make a 

ladder' edhangl: light, radiance'; e. edho 'daylight, sunlight'; medhang (m-edhang):

                  'bright'; m. edho 'the day is coming, its morning already! 

(phrase used when

                   walking someone in the morning)' {cf. lekedhang, midang) 

edhang2: 'wall hook, on which objects are hung'; ngedhang (ng-edhang) 'put

                   something on a wall hook' (cf. a?ud) 

edha?1: 'handle'; medha? (em-edha?) 'attach a handle' pedha? (p-edha?)

                   'handle' (cl', etun, tunan) 

edha?2: 'temper'; da?et edha? 'bad-tempered' edheh: 'one; there is one' edhen: 'work (n.): suffering' (cf. mededhen) edheng1: 'rung of a ladder' edheng2: 'saliva containing mucus' edhing: 'coming, arrival of someone': medhing (em-edhing) 'arrive' edhi?: 'term of familiarity used among females' (cf. bedhi?) edho: 'day'; e. ma?un (CB) 'day before yesterday'; e. riak 'tomorrow'; e. riak

                    edheh 'day after tomorrow'; mated edho 'sun'; medho 

(m-edho) 'midday' edhuh: 'act of pushing': ngedhuh (ng-edhuh) 'to push (as wood into a fire)' (cf.


egheng: 'chill, cold (n.)'; megheng (em-egheng) 'shiver'; ngegheng (ng-egheng)

                     'make someone or something chilly'(cf. gegheng, tegeker) 

eghul: 'temperament' ;da?et eghul 'bad-tempered; also used of a person who

                      has trouble waking up in the morning' (cf. ukul) 

ekeb: 'cover, lid, as for a basket'; ikeb (e-i-keb) 'was covered by' (cf. kekeb) ekiw: (see la?al) ekung: 'owl' elab (CB): 'the shaking out of a mat'; ngelab (ng-elab) 'shake out a mat' elad: 'wing of a bird' elak: 'stored in the crotch of a tree branch'; ilak (e-i-lak) 'preterite passive of

                  ngelak';  ngelak  (ng-elak) 'to store something  in the 

crotch of a tree branch' elang (CB): 'border, place where the jungle borders on a clearing (if one does

                     not intend  to expand the clearing)'; ngelang (ng-elang)  

'make a border, as by

                     clearing away growth between two pieces of land' (cl'. 

eleng, erang) ela?: 'want. desire: will (future)' eleg: 'cessation: divorce': leghen (eleg-en) 'aorist passive of meleg': meleg

                    (em-eleg) to stop': ileg (e-i-leg) 'was stopped by' 

elen: 'pillow of wood or corn silk' eleng (CB): 'place where the jungle borders on a clearing (if one intends to

                     expand the clearing)' (cf. elang, erang) 

eling1: 'edge (of a timber, etc.)' eling2: 'pieces of split bamboo used in weaving mats or baskets' (see bulu?) elu1 (CB): land that previously has been farmed and now lies unused, fallow

                     land' (= elu2?) 

elu2 (CB): 'rotted remains of a fruit that has become overripe without being

                     eaten': melu (m-elu) 'overripe, of fruits':   ngelu 

(ng-elu) 'allow fruit to

                     become overripe and go to waste' 

elu1: 'pitfall for catching animals' elud2 (CB): 'slippery hillside that has been denuded of foliage' elung1: (see manuk) elung2: 'mouth of a river' eme (CB): 'go, go to' (cf. me2) eme?: 'goat' emes: 'gold' (Malay loan) emung (JU): 'way of gathering'; imung(e-i-mung) 'was gathered by'; ngemung

                    (ng-emung)  'collect, gather, bring together';   pemung 

(p-emung) 'heaped


emu?: 'intimate term of address by an adult man or woman to a younger

                    female, (something like "my daughter")': emu?  ta?ih  'an 

even more

                    intimale term for girls' '(cf. ta?ih) 

ena?: 'So-and-So' enem: 'six' enun: 'what?' engat: 'gulping' engep: 'a kiss'; ngepen(engep-en)'aorist passive of ngengep'; ingep (e-i-ngep)

                   'was kissed by'; ngengep (ng-engep)  'to kiss'; pengep 

(p-engep), pepengep

                   (pep-engep) 'kiss each anolher' 

engi: 'that (demonstrative)' (cf. ineh) enggg: 'sound of growling (ononm.)' epak: 'what is split': ipak (e-i-pak) 'was split by', nepak (ne-epak) 'to split

                    kill an animal with a machete';  ngepak (ng-epak) 'to 

split' epa?: 'way of chewing'; mepa?(em-epa?) 'to chew' epat: 'four' epem (CB): 'pump (as a water pump)' (English loan) epid: 'act of intertwining'; ipid(e-i-pid) 'was braided by'; ngepid (ng-epid)'to

                     braid, interwine', pepepid (pep-epid) 'walk with arms 

around each others'

                     shoulders (of small boys)' 

epin: 'sleeping mat' (cf.ugam) epit: 'bamboo tongs for removing charcoal from the fire'; ngepil (ng-epit) 'pick

                     something up with tongs' 

epub: 'the medicine used by a traditional doctor': ngepub (ng-epub) 'treat

                      someone with traditional medicine' 

epun: 'grandparent of: e. Gerawat 'grandparent of Gerawat' (cf. tepuh, tepu? ) eput: 'blowpipe'; ngeput (ng-eput) 'shoot with a blowpipe' erang (CB): 'border, division'; e. tana? 'border' (cf. elang, eleng) eren (PM): 'taboo' (cf. alih) ereng: 'a groan, growl' ngereng (ng-ereng) 'to groan, make a groaning sound (as

                      a sick person or a ghost), to growl (as a dog)' 

eret: 'man's belt'; ngeret (ng-eref) 'tighten by constriction, as a belt' (cf. beret) esag: 'act of splittint;': isag (e-i-sag) 'was split by': nesag (ne-esag) to split

                      bamboo (for floors in temporary huts)': tesag (t-esag) 

'split bamboo for

                      walls or floors' 

eseb: 'any burned-over area, such as that created in the preparation of a

                      swidden'; e-i-seb 'prcierile passive of ngeseb'; ngeseb 

(ng-eseh) 'to burn over

                      an area' 

esem: (see bua?) esit: 'small frog that lives in the stalks of banana trees' (cf. beraok,teleka?) esu: 'continuation of one action into another that follows immediately'; isu

                     (e-i-su) 'preterile passive of ngesu'; ngesu (ng-esu) 

'continue doing one thing

                     immediately after completing another' 

esub: 'act of knocking down'; suben-(esub-en) 'aorist passive of ngesub';

                    ngesub (ng-esub) 'knock down, as a buffalo or other 

corraled animal might

                    knock down a fence lo escape' 

ela: 'fence': ngeta (ng-eta) 'to fence, fence in' eta?: 'slug (animal)' eteb: 'act of cutting: the mark left by cutting'; keteb (k-eteb) 'either of the two

                    pieces of wood produced by a splitting cut'; geteb 

(g-keteb) 'to cut a

                    longitudinal piece (as a stick) in half 

eteh: 'area at the base of the spine: tail-bone' etek: 'popcorn': ngetek (ng-etek) 'make popcorn' eteng: 'button (as on a shirt)': ngeteng (ng-eteng) 'to button' etep (CB): 'bite, mark left by biting': itep (e-i-tep) 'was bitten by'; ngetep (ng-etep) 'to bite' (ambiguous for stems etep; getep: ketep) eti: 'tea' (English loan; cf. t6h)


etuk: 'heartbeat' etun: long handle, like a hoe handle' (cf. edha?) etung: 'meeting place' etut: 'a fart', ngetut(ng-etut) 'to fart'


gaber: 'picture'-, ngaber (ng-gaber) 'take pictures with a camera' (Malay loan) gagap (PM): 'startled' ngagap (ng-gagap) 'startle someone' (cf. agap) gaing: 'spinning top (popular in competitive games)' galih: 'strong' (cf. kail, tu?eh) garnet: 'hawk' gamung: 'aimless action' ;gamur) gamung 'doing something aimlessly, as child-

                 ren playing around aimlessly, or housefies buzzing about': 


                 (pere-gamung) 'fly around aimlessly, as bees' (cf. pegainung) 

gareng (JU): 'roaring (as ;I animal) gatel: 'itchy: red spot from a rash' (cf. mueh) gaun (JU): 'skirt' (English 'gown') gegheng1: 'lifting (as clouds, or an airplane lifting up into the air); the

                    expression gegheng ieh  was used in a traditional ceremony 

which included a

                    contest of strength (kiding berek) in which young men would 

lie on the back

                    and lift a bound, grown pig with one arm'; ngegheng 

(ng-gegheg) 'to lift' gegheng2: 'be numb with cold': gegengen (gegheng-en) 'aorist passive of

                    ngegheng'; ngegheng (ng-geghrng) 'too numb with cold' 

geleng (CB): 'armlet for males' (cf. leku?) gelisek: 'ticklish'; ngelisek (ng-gelisek) 'to tickle, as a parent tickling a baby to

                    make it laugh' 

genuluh: 'stalk of a riceplant without grain head' (cf. runguh) geregaji?: 'to saw' (Malay loan) geramih (CB): 'rice straw, rice stubble' (cf. deramih) gerawat: 'tangled, complicated' gerimu?: 'to grin' geriset: 'wrinkle (of skin or clothing)' gerut (CD): 'hard rice thal sticks lo the bottom of the pot afterr cooking'; ngerut

                     (ng-gerut) 'scrape out hard rice from the bottom of the 

pol after cooking' gesimel (CB): 'bed bug' (cf. adel, kutuh, li?a, tumeh) gelep: 'bite', getepen (getep-en) 'aorisi passive of ngetep'; ngetep (ng-getep)'to

                        bite' (cf. etep, ketep) 

getu?en: 'star' (cf. gitu?en) gileg: 'feet nauseated, feel like vomiting when seeing something dingusting;

                  make a startled movement as when someone pokes you in the 

ribs'; ngileg

                  (ng-gileg) 'dig someone in lhe ribs' 

girung (PM): looking for something misplaced' (cf. giwen) gitu?en (CD): (see getu?en) giwen (JU}: 'untidy, having messy habits' gugut: 'bottom incisor tooth'; ngugut (n-gugut) 'bite with the incisors' (cf.


guling (JU): (?): guling guling 'shake the head back and forth' guta: 'wade across a river'; getaan (guta-an) 'fording place, place where

                 people usually wade across a river'; megeta (me-geta) 'help 

someone wade

                 across a river' 


ian: 'dehortative. don't' (cf. dara?) iat: 'breath; life, spirit, soul'; da?et iat 'sad'; niat (ne-iat) 'to breathe' ibal: 'some' iban: 'parent in law' ibhang: 'hindrance, intervention': nibhang (ng-ibhang) 'hinder, prevent, inter-


ibha?: 'kind of bark bowl used for emptying water' (cf. ebha?) ibhu?: longitudinal incision made on lhe ventral side of a fish or animal n

              remove the viscera': ngibhu?? (ng-ibhu?) 'make such an incision' 

idan: 'when?' idang (PM): 'sunlight' (cr midang) ideh: 'they (pl.): other people'; dideh (idih-ideh?) 'theirs' (cf. diweh. deteluh,


idih (CB): 'it, thing mentioned; present, as a person' (ken idih ieh 'is he

                  here/is he present?') 

idhung: 'nose' ieh: '3sg. subject and object: he, she, it; dieh (idih-ieh?) 'his' iih: 'who?' ikab: 'opening in the longhouse roof for the entrance of light and for the exit

                of smoke from the cooking fire' 

iko: '2sg. subject and object; you'; diko (idih-iko?) 'yours' ilad: 'kind of palm, the leaves of which are used for making hats' ilan: 'to lick' ileh1: 'intelligence, cleverness'; mileh (m-ileh) 'clever' ileh2: 'unit of measurement equal to about one yard' iiek: 'armpit' I ilun: 'nail of finger or toe'; i. tidhu? 'fngernail', i. kukud 'toenail', i. item

                (lit  'black nail') 'tip of the fingernail' 

ilung: 'seed, corn kernel; meaning, purpose' (enun ilung muyuh marih idih?

                 'what is your purpose in coming here?'); i. tenur: 'testicle' 

(cf. tenuran) ilut: 'cane used for caning'; ngilut (ng-ilut) 'strike someone with rattan, as in


imet: 'a grasp, hold on something'; nimet (in-imet) 'was held by';: ngimet

                 (ng-imet) 'to grasp, hold' (cf. itan) 

inam: 'a figure; act of counting'; nginam (ng-inam) 'to count' (cf. itung) inan: 'reason' ina?: 'my daughter (term of address?)' inat: 'a pull. tug'; nginat (ng-inat)'to pull, tug'; pepinat (pep-inat) 'tug-of-war' ineh: 'that (demonstrative)': kineh(k-ineh) 'that way' (cf. engi) inih: 'this'; kinih (k-inih) 'this way; now' io: 'knife' ipa?1: 'black skin mole' ipa?2: leaf used as a seasoning agent' i?ik (JU): (see labo) i?ir: 'sharpened'; ngi?ir (ng-i?ir) 'to sharpen' (cf. asa, tadem) i?it : little, small' (cf. kedi?it, si'?it) irang (CD): 'slope of a mountain' (cf. tukedh ) irat: 'coming'; mirat (me-irat) 'come' (let ngapeh iral muyuh 'where do you

                    come from?'); i.edho 'direction of the rising sun' 

iro: 'madness, insanity'; miro (m-iro) 'mad, insane' irup: 'what is dnink; way of drinking'; mirup (em-irup) 'to drink'; nirup

                   (in-irup) 'was drunk by'; rupan (irup-an) 'watering hole for 

animals in the

                   jungle'; rupen (imp-en) 'aorist passive of mirup'; ngirup 

(ng-irup) 'to drink'

                   (children's speech): pemirup (pemirup) 'container used to 

hold something to

                   drink (jar, glass, etc.)' 

isa?: 'what one deserves' (in the expression: ku isa? muh 'serves you right!') iseh: 'a file, instrument for filing'; ngiseh (ng-iseh) 'to file' isip1 (CB): 'plate with thin, glossy leaves which are used to wrap rice cakes,

                   packages of rice, etc.' 

isip2: 'sheets of tin (before being made into tin cans)' isi?: 'contents' (Malay loan): nisi? (in-isi?) 'was filled by', ngisi? (ng-isi?) 'to

                   fill'(cf. uang) 

isud1: 'marrow' (cf. used) isud2: 'sigh of relief itan: 'hold, grasp' (cf. imet) item (GT): 'blackness'; mitem (m-item) (CB) 'black'; ngitem (ng-item) 'black-

                    en, darken'; item-item 'dirty'. 

iti: 'recognition'; ngiti (ng-iti) 'recognize someone', pepiti (pep-iti) 'recognze

                    one anolher' 

iti?: female breast'; miti? (em-iti?) 'to suck, as a baby sucking at the

                     breast'; ngiti? (ng-iti?) 'to suckle, as a mother sucking 

her baby' itun: 'a question': nitun (in-itun) 'was asked by', tunen (itun-en) 'aorist

                     passive of  ngitun';  ngitun (ng-itun) 'ask a question'; 

pepitun (pep-itun)

                    'question one another' 

itung: 'a figure', act of Counting'; ngitung (ng-itung) 'to count' (probably a Malay

                    loan: cf. inam)      I 

iuh: 'elbow': miuh (ein-iuh) 'accidentally knock with the elbow'; ngiuh (ng-

                    iuh) 'to elbow, knock with lhe elbow'; piuh (p-iuh) 'knock 

one another with

                    the elbow'           ! 

iuk (?): iuk iuk (JU) little by little' iung: 'rectangular wooden platform slightly hollowed out, with a hole in the

                    center in which rice is pounded'; lobang  iung 'the hole in 

the center of the

                    iung';  betueh  iung  'a wooden extension of the iung  

which lies under the

                    lobang  iung  and catches lhe rice' 

iup: 'blowing'; ngiup (ng-iup) 'to blow' iur: 'tail (animal)'; iur iur 'used of someone who wants to be behind all the

                   time in his work' 

iwa?: 'nine'

J jawa: 'foreign country' (see peretak) julung: 'prow of a canoe' (cf. udhih)

K kaber: 'pineapple' (see bua?) kabing: lefl side': pekabing (pe-kabing) 'on the left side' kadang: long, as a stick' (cf. rawir) kadi?1: 'because' kadi?2 (CB): 'small' kail: 'strong (of a person)' (cf. galih, tu?eh) kak: ('?)'. kak kak 'sound of cackling (onom.)' kalang: 'thick creeper from which latex is collected' kalat: 'rope' (cf. nuper) kamih: 'we (pi. excl.)': dikamih (idih-kamih?) 'ours' (cf. kediweh, keleluh,

                kiteh, tauh, teluh) 

kanid: 'cousin, child of MZ, MB,FZ or FB'; k. dedhur 'female cousin'; k.

                dela?ih  'male cousin (reference)', k. la?ih  'male cousin 

(address)': k.

                midhed 'first cousin' 

kapak: 'axe' (Malay loan, cf. uay) kapal: 'thick' kapeh: 'how?' kapur: lime, chalk' karar: 'a slant': ngarar (ng-karai-) 'place something in a slanting position' karo: 'act of scratching': ngaro (ng-karo) 'scratch an itchy part' (cf. ngeramit) karuh (CB): 'what is said, words'; nekaruh (ne-karuh) 'to talk, speak' kasang (CB): 'peanuts' (Malay loan) katem (CB): 'wood plane, implement for planing wood' kato: locust, grasshopper' k. umeng 'cricket' katu: 'ancestor, descendant; a continuation of anything' (cf. pekatu)

kawan: 'friend' (Malay loan; cf. paad) kawit: 'accidentally cut or scratched by being brushed with a machete (as

                 when working next to someone cutting grass)' 

kaya?: 'weak' kayep: 'swimming'; kayep kayep 'dog-paddle in the water'; perekayep

               (pere-kayeh) 'to swim for one's life (GT); to dog-paddle (CB)' 

(cf. languy)

               kayuh:     'wood, tree'; k apuy  'firewood'; k. aru?   

'casuarina (used for

               firewood)'; k. ipak 'small logs used in fireplace';  k. main 

'cinnamon', k.

               tumuh '.soft wood tree with fine grain and thick, oval leaves 

(used for timber

               and for obtaining resin for lamps)' 

ke-: 'ordinal prefix for numerals' kedaluh: 'a fight, quarrel; kindaluh (k-in-edaluh) 'preterite passive of nge-

                 daluh'; ngedaluh  (ng- kedaluh) 'to fight, quarrel with'; 

pekedaluh (pep-

                 kedaluh) 'fight each other' (cf. daluh) 

kedelan: 'choke, choke on' (cf. meker, pekan) kedi?it: little, small in amount, of time' (na?it kedi?it 'wait a little') (cf. i?it,


kediweh: 'we (dual excl.)' (cf. kamih, keteluh, kiteh, tauh, teluh) keduit (JU): ladle, scoop' kedha: 'able to withstand pain'; kedaan (kedha-an) 'suffering'; ngedha, (ng-

                  kedha) 'suffer' 

kedhep: 'a blink, act of blinking'; kedhep kedhep 'blink constantly or


kejem: 'a grimace'; nekejem (ne-kejem) 'to grimace, make a face' kekal: 'break off, snap off; ngekal(ng-kekal) 'to pick, pluck froif kekeb (CB): lid, cover of something'; ngekeb (ng-kekeb) 'to cover' (cf, a?eb,


kekelit: 'small insectivorous bat' (cf. pawat) kekeng(CB): 'to shrink, as clothing' kelab: 'flapping', nekelab (ne-kelab) 'flap the wings, as a rooster before

                       crowing' (cf. nekebher) 

kelabet(CB): 'gibbon' (cf. bedhuk, berangad, kuyad) kelatih (CB): 'earthworm' (cf. kereruer, uled) kelawa? (PM): 'spider' (cf. kelelawa?) keled (JU): 'kind of black and red spotted fish with a large mouth' kelelawa? (CB): 'spider' (cf. kelawa.?) kelibung: 'material, fabric (G'l'): clothing (CB)' (cf. anuk) kelingay: 'mirror', ngelingay (ng-kelingay) look in the mirror' kelio: 'wild ox with large involuted horns: Bos gaurus (nearly extinct at the

                      time of data collection in 1969) 

keli? (CB): 'know (facts)' keluit: 'fishhook': ngeluit (ng-keluit) 'to fish with hook and line' kemu?: 'short (height, length), brief; to summarize' ken1: 'according to (someone or something)' ken2: 'particle used to form yes-no questions' kenaman (CB): 'pass out' (cf, redhan) kenanak: 'sibling'; k. delaih 'brother (can also be used for a close friend)', k.

                       dedhur 'sister'; k. i?it (CB) 'younger sibling'; k. 

rayeh (CB) 'older sibling' kenangan: 'the nipa palm: Nipa fruticans' kenen: 'eat (imperative)' (see kuman, nuk) kenep (CB): 'each, every'; k. edho 'each day, every day' keniw: 'eagle' kenu?: 'sexual intercourse (vulgar)'; ngenu? (ng-kenu?), pekenu? (pep-kenu?)

                        'to have sexual intercourse' (cf. patot, sait) 

kepit: 'shrunken (as a bean that has dried)' keraad: 'palate' keramut: 'small mango variety' (see bua?) kera?: 'crab' I kerayab: 'sit in a sloppy or disrespectful manner, sit with limbs akimbo' kereb1: 'permitted, allowed; can, able, capable' kereb2: 'fit, suitability, compatibility with desire'; doo? kereb to just fit (as

                        shoes)', doo? kereb ain  'just sweet enough (of taste)' 

kereja (CB): 'work' (Malay loan) kerekern: 'claw'; ngerekem (ng-kerekem) 'to claw, scratch with claws' kereruang (CB): land snail' (cf. akep, keruang) kereruar(CB): 'intestinal worm, flatworm' (cf. kelatih, uled) kerid: 'vegetables (generic)' keruang (CB): land snail" (cf. akep, kereruang) kerubaw: 'carabao, water buffalo' (loan, probably from Malay) kerud (CB): 'a scrape or abrasion'; ngrud (ng-kerud) 'to scrape something' keted: 'back (human)'; neketed (ne-kete4) 'turn one's back on someone';

                           peketed (pep-keted) 'sit back to back' 

keleluh: 'we (trial excl.)' (cf. kamih, kediweh, kiteh, tauh, teluh) ketep: 'mark left by a bite'; ngetep (u-ketep) 'to bite (considered less crude

                           than ngubit)' (cf. etep,. getep) 

keter(CB): (see labo) ketian: 'thread' (Malay loan) ketuh: 'very, really'; doo? ketuh 'very good' keturu?: 'get hurt' kiding: lifting'; k. berek 'pig lifting (traditional contest in which men would

                      see who could lift a pig)'; ngiding (ng-kiding) 'to lift' 

kiki (CB): 'hair that is shaved off; r)iki (D-kiki) 'shave offhair' kikid: 'vegetable soup' kilat(CB): lightning' kilu?: 'bend, curve (as a road)'; kemilu? (k-em-ilu?) 'move in a winding or

                       meandering manner'; kinilu? (k-in-ilu?) 'result of 

bending (e.g. if a tree

                       falls across a path and a detour must be made around it 

the new path is

                       called kinilu?)'; ngilu? (ng-kilu?) 'bend something' 

kibet(JU): 'heal' (cf. pali?) kimuh: 'abscess, boil' kinan: (see kuman) kineh (JU): 'that way' (cf. inch) kinih: 'now; this way' (cf. inih) ki?ik (CB): 'bamboo piece turned by a wind-driven propeller so as to creak

                       and frighten birds from the fields'; ngeki?ik 

(nge-ki'/ik) 'to creak (trees in the

                       wind, doors when opened, floorboards underfoot)' 

kiteh: 'we dual (inci.)' (cf. kamih, kediweh, keteluh, tauh, teluh)

kopi: 'coffee' (English loan) ku: 'sentence particle (?)'; cf. ku isa? muh 'serves you right!' kuan (CB): 'to, for (a person)' kubil: leather, hide, as of deer or buffalo' (cf. anit) kuden: 'earthen pot' kudhuy: 'stretch out onej's legs' kuh: 'lsg. agent and possessor; me, my* ku?: 'for': ku? enun 'for what = why?' kuir (JU): 'clouded leopard' kuk: (?); kuk kuk: 'sound of a dog barking (onom.)' kukud: 'foot, leg' kuku?uk: 'sound of cawing (onom.)' kukur (CB): 'kind of pigeon (turtle dove? )' (cf. meto) kulat1: 'mushroom, toadstool' kulat2: 'wake up' (cf. tu?i) kulit: 'skin (of people, animals, fruits, trees, bamboo)'; rice husk (singular: see

                          padek), ngulit (ng-kulit) 'to skin (fruits, small 

tree, bamboo)' kulub: 'hollowed log laid inverted over the ridge of the roof to shed rain,

                          ridgepole cover' 

kuman: 'to eat'; kinan (k-in-an) 'was eaten by (with incipient fossilization of

                          the verb morphology)'; penguman (peng-kuman) 

'anything eaten with rice'

                          (cf. peman) 

ku?an (CB): 'splinter' ku?el: 'wrist' ref ku?uk: 'cawing of a crow'; neku?uk (ne-ku?uk)'to caw, of a crow' kuri: 'ringworm; affected by ringworm' (cf. pulang) kusay: 'small onion, leek: Allium porrum' (Malay loan) kutang (CB): 'cockroach' kutuh: 'head louse, louse in the hair' (cf. adel, gesimel, li?a, tumeh) kuyad (CB): 'small gray, long-tailed monkey: long-tailed macaque' (cf.

                          bedhuk, berangad, kelabet) 

kuyat: 'a scratch on the ground, as that made by a fowl in searching for food;

                          the act of scratching'; nekuyat (ne-kuyat) 'to 

scratch the ground' kuyu?: 'buckskin garment that covers only the arms. worn for protection

                           while engaged in certain types of work' (cf. sapa?) 

L laab: 'quicksand, soft mud in which people or animals sink when they walk

             (buffaloes often die in this)' 

laak1: 'ripe (fruits); cooked (stative)'; lakan (laak-an) 'ripeness'; laken

              (laak-en) 'thing cooked'; linaak (I-in-aak) 'was cooked by';  

ngelaak (ng-

              laak) 'to cook (rice)' (cf. lened, tanek) 

laak2: 'year' laam: 'sour' laba (JU): 'pass by'; gelaba (g-laba) 'overtake' (cf. pelaba) labing: 'buttress roots, as the roots of the Casuarina' (cf. ramut, uat) labo: 'meat' labo: (?), 1. i?ik: 'rat'; 1. keler 'squirrel' labuh: 'gray, color of darker clouds'; labuh labuh (JU) 'dusty'; lemabuh

                (l-em-ahuh) 'gel oncscll covered wilh dust or ashes, as a child 

playing in

                the dirt, throw a temper tantrum (= 'roll in the dirt')' (cf. 

abuh) ladeh: 'red chili pepper': ngeladeh (ng-ladeh) 'make food hot by spicing it wilh

                 red chili pepper' 

lai: 'outside, the outside of: pelai (pe-lai): 'outside (as outside a social

                 group)' (cf. aping) 

lajang: 'heavy iron cooking pot' lakut (CB): 'the bending of a branch or the tip of a bamboo stalk; act of

                    pulling a branch or the lip of a bamboo stalk down': 

belakut (be-lakut) 'beni

                    down, of a branch or the tip of a bamboo stalk'; binlakut 


                    linakut (l-in-akut) 'preterite passive of melakut': melakut 


                    'bend or pull a branch of bamboo stalk over 

lalaw: 'mythical dragon that lives in the river laled: 'black housefly' (cf. lango) lalid: 'ear' (cf. dalid) laman: 'pasture for buffalos lamud1: 'mixture': ngelamud (nge-lamud), melamud (ng-pe-lamud)'to mix':

                     pelamud (pelamud) 'mixed' 

lamud2: 'yeast' lana: 'smooth and shiny, as a bald head': ngelana (ng-lana) 'make smooth' (cf.

                     tepi)                      I 

lanit: 'skinning, peeling off; linanit (I-in-anit) 'was skinned by'; ngelanit

                     (ng-lanit) 'to skin, peel bark from trees' (cf. anit) 

langan: 'blowpipe dart' ; langit: 'sky' lango: large bluish-green fly, horsefly' (cf. laled) langu?: 'brother-in-law, sister-in-law' languy: 'swimming': languy languy 'dog-paddle in the water'; lemanguy

                       em-anguy) 'swim for fun or enjoyment; float'; selanguy 

(se-languy) 'float'

                       (cf. kayep) 

lao: 'glossy, as the fur of a healthy animal' lapung: lamp' (from Malay lampu; cf. dawan) laput: 'cloud' la?al: 'chicken'; 1.ekiw 'heron' la?eh: 'more (some still left)' la?ih: 'male'; 1. rayeh 'old man' (cf. babuy,dela?ih) la?ud 'downriver, toward the sea'; mela?ud (me-la?ud) 'downriver' la?uh: 'hungry' lati?: 'swidden, dry rice field; work on a swidden'; 1. baa? 'rice paddy, wet

                      rice field' (cf. kereja) 

lato: 'oily (from animal fat)' (cf. ebha? rudheng) lau?: 'warm. hot': 1. dame 'lukewarm' lawe: 'walk': lawe lawe 'walk about aimlessly'; linawe (I-in-awe) 'walked; a

                     trip, journey' 

laya?: 'soft'; ngelaya? (ng-laya?) 'soften' layo(CB): 'tame, docile'; ngelayo (ng-layo) 'tame an animal' layuh: 'wither'; lemayuh (l-em-ayuh) 'to wither (as a plant withering of its

                    own accord)'; linayuh (I-in-ayuh) 'preterite passive of 

ngelayuh'; ngelayuh

                    (ng-layuh) 'make something wither, as by pulling it close 

to the fire' 1eh: ' term of familiarity used among males' ledham (CB): 'nauseated, as from eating too much pork fat' lega: 'bench; floor in jungle hut' leghu?: 'thunder' leh: 'about to (do)' (leh me uih I'm going to go /l want to go') lekak (PM): 'peeling'; ngelekak (n-lekak) 'peel or take off the top layer' lekat: 'give up some activity voluntarily' lekedhang (CB): 'morning' (cf. edhag, uka) leki?: 'high-pitched, as a girl's voice' (cf. dengur) lekoa: large variety of ginger: Alpinia galanga' (cf. lieh) leku?: 'bracelet of plant fibers, ivory, etc. worn by females' (cf. geleng) leleg: 'residue left after drinking something' leleng: 'dam made of branch

                     in the river' 

lem: 'at, in'; 1. uang 'inside' lematek: 'jungle leech' lemek: 'fat of an animal, grease' (cf. lemuh) lemuh: 'fat, obese (people, ailimals)' (cf. lemuh) lemulun (CB): 'person, humap being' (cf. demulun, dulun) lemuned (JU): 'in the middle' (cf. uned) lena? (PM): 'recede, of river water' (cf. ngena?) lened (CB): 'cooking of vegetables'; gelened (g-lened) 'cook vegelables' (c.f

                      laak, tanek)               : 

lengen: 'arm' lengu: 'slipped off (silirt, snike skin. etc.)': ngelengu (o-legu) 'take off, remove

                       anything that encircles, as a bracelet, necklace, shirt' 

(cf. selengu) lepag: 'chipped' lepa? (CB); 'foam. suds' lepeku?: 'very small pond' (cf. takung) lepo: 'hut in the jungle where one can stay overnight when travelling away

                       from the village; temporary shelter'; 1. pade 'rice 

granary' let: 'from' leta?: 'a crack; cracked' liang: 'under'; 1. ruma?' 'area under the longhouse, where domesticated

                       animals are kept'; peliang(pe-liang) 'below beneath' 

libuh1 (JU): 'a fruit, the guava: Psidium guava' libuh2(CB): 'round'; ngelibuh (ng-libuh) 'to circle; make something round' libut (CB): 'circle': ngelibut (ng-libut) 'go around'; pelibut (pe-libut) (CB):

                       'encircle, surround game in hunting' 

lidik (JU): 'cutting of undergrowth'; lemidik (l-em-idik) 'cut undergrowth' lidha?: 'sputum (saliva that has been expectorated)'; ngelidha? (ng-lidha?) 'to

                       spit' (cf.  aka?, redhen) 

lieh: 'small variety of ginger: Zingiber officinale' (cf. lekoa)

liget (CB): 'turning of the head': lemiget (l-em-iget) 'turn the head'; liget liget

                        'turn  the head  this  way and  lhal  repeatedly';  

ligeten (ligct-en) 'aorist

                         passive of liget' 

liip (CB): 'sound made by contracting the lips and sucking in the breath

                         forcefully, as in pain or when tasting something with 

an intensely bitter or

                         sweet quality: smack the lips' 

lili: 'covetous (after things)' (cf. manga) limeh 'five' lino: 'calm and clear, of water (esp. in a paddy field)' linuh: 'thought, sentiment: the shuddering feeling experienced when someone

                         scratches bamboo with the fingernails': ngelinuh 

(ng-linuh) 'to think' lipa (JU): (see lipeh) lipang: (?): I. pade: 'rice with empty husk (no grain inside)' lipeh (CB): 'side, as of the body' lipen: 'tooth' lipi: 'thin, of materials' (cf. nipi, rugu?) li?a: louse egg, nit' (cf. adel, gesimel, kutuh, tumeh)


li?ip: 'shoulder blade, scapula' li?o: 'crystal clear, as water that one can see through to the bottom'; keli?o

                          (ke-li?o) 'understand': ngeli?o (i]-keli?o) 'know' 

liu? (JU): 'slippery' lobang: 'hole' (Malay loan): lobang lalid 'aperture of the ear' (cf. lubang) luang: 'fish'; 1. pelian 'large fish that is caught with the use of tubeh. This is

                           the largest fish in thp Bario area, and the most 

important fish eaten by the

                           Kelabit people' 

lubang ruma?: 'individual door or compartment in the longhouse' (probably =


lubid (JU): 'act of rolling over'; ngelubid (ng-lubid) 'roll something over (as a

                           log)' (cf. rier) 

ludek: 'mud' lueng: 'dent, depression'; ngelueng (ng-lueng) 'to dent, make a dent or depression

                            in something' 

luka?: 'fall (while on the ground), slip and fall down' (cf. petedheng, tutu?) Iuko?: 'rolled tobacco' (cf. siguk) lulud: 'shin' lulun: 'a roll of something': linulun (I-in-ulun) 'was rolled up by'; ngelulun (ng-

                       lulun) 'roll up (a mat, tobacco leaf, etc.)' 

lumut: 'moss' lun: 'person, people (in certain expressions only)' lunek: 'thick, juicy lining inside the seed coat in a jack:fruit' lunu?: 'gums' lunging: 'rice mortar' lungun(CB): 'coffin (term used by older generation)' (cf. benang) lupa (JU): 'naked' (cf. uang uang) lupu (I'M): to overflow, boil over (of liquids, in cooking)' (cf. ubhir) lupuk: 'blister' lupung: 'a float; lo floal (as a dead leaf)'; lemupung (l-em-upung) 'to float (as a

                       fish)' (cf. belel) 

lu?eh: 'sleepiness'; lu?eh lu?eh 'sleepy'; ngelu?eh (ng-lu?eh) 'be sleepy' lutak: 'muddy, dirty (from work or play)' (cf. luyu?) lutut: 'muddy (of unclear water)' luud (CB): (?): luud luud 'slide back and forth while sitting' luun: 'on, upon'; peluun (pe-luun) 'above' luyu?: 'dirty, untidy' (cf. lutak)


mabuk (CB): 'drunk' mado: 'far' (cf. muneng) madu: 'forehead' mae? (JLJ): 'to love' (cf. mawa) majan: 'papaya' (see bua?) malem: 'several days ago; dark (used in this sense only by older generation

                   according to CB)'; ngi malem 'yesterday' (cf. alem; ngilad) 

rnameg (JU): 'slap someone on the back accidentally' manuk: 'bird': m.elung 'jungle fowl' manga: 'greedy (for food; cf. lili)' ma?un: 'first (in a contest); old (of things)'; pema?un (pe-ma?un) 'in front

                 of, ahead of (cf. dadan, ngered) 

marih: 'come' manin: 'color of the smoke-darkened area around a fireplace' mata?: 'raw, unripe, uncooked' mateh: 'eye' matu?1: 'approach, move toward something as a result of definite, intentional


matu?2: look after someone (as a child); observe' mawa (PM): 'surprised' mawan(CB): 'seen, visible' mayad (JU): leak out little by little, as rice from a hole in a basket' (cf. rurug) maya?: 'direction; follow; in accordance with' mayung: 'to spear' (cf. buso) me1: 'and, with' me2: 'go. go to'; mine(m-in-e) 'went. went to' (cf. eme) mededhen: 'work at something, as a craft (cf. edhen) medueh: 'you (dual)' (cf. meteluh, muyub) meghel (CB): 'stay with a small child to make him sleep' mekaar: 'wind wire or rattan around something' meker: 'have something stuck in the throat' (cf. kedelan, pekan) mekud: 'poke someone or something that is above you (fruit, person, object

                       lodged in a tree branch) with a stick to make it fall or 

come down' mela1: 'cleared, of an area in the jungle' mela2: 'to massage' melepet: 'to corrupt the form of a word' meliun: 'million' (English loan) melukung: 'carry a child, basket or anything non-elongated on the shoulders' menad: 'climb stairs or a tree' menaken: 'nephew, niece' (see anak) menebhur: 'rice porridge' menegeg: 'mythical monster that lives in rivers and lakes' menegeg: 'hornbill sp.' (cf. metuy, temengang) menerang: 'poisonous snake, type of cobra' menipal: 'generic term for poisonous insects and other creepy-crawly creatures

                       (including centipedes, scorpions, spiders)'; m. kera? 

'scorpion' menul: 'push something standing upright' (cf. eduh) meri (JU): 'dried up. as a stream' metanur: 'chase (as an animal in the hunt)' metapu? (JU): 'to marry, be married; to add' metatad (JU): 'remind .someone to do something' meteluh: 'you (trial)' (cf. medueh, muyuh) meti? (CB): 'to kick' meto: 'pigeon with metallic greenish breast' (cf. kukur) mututub: hit someone else's face on the foor (as in a fight)' metuy: 'hrnbill sp. with long tail feathers' (cf. menengang, temengang) midang (CB): 'sunlight, daylight'; beruh m. 'daylight hours from about 8 to 10

                       in the morning': me m. 'to go dry something-in the sun' 

(cf. edhang1, idang) midih: (cf. nuk) midheh: 'first; once, cut through wood with a single stroke' (cf. edheh, kanid) migu? (JU): 'ashamed' mija (CB): 'table' (Malay loan) milem: 'purple, color of a bruise, "black and blue' "(cf. direm) milo: 'glaring, of bright sunlight on the surface of water' (cf. silo) miluh(CB): 'eat something poisonous so as to become sick and vomit' mubud (CB): 'pour water into a pot' mubut (CB): 'step on something (as a nail) that pierces the foot' mudang (JU): 'stay at home when one would normally go out, as during work-

                       ing hours' 

mudhih: 'behind, last'; pemudhih (pe-mudhih) 'at the back, behind' mueh: 'pimple' (cf. gatel) muh: '2sg. agent and possessor: you, your' mukul (PM): 'disposition'; da?et mukul lazy'; doo? mukul 'diligent' (cf.

                      eghul, ukul) 

mula?: 'much, many' muli?: 'return home' muned (CB): 'correct' (= connected with uned 'middle'?) muneng: 'near' (cf. mado) muno: 'behavior, sense of how to behave': na?em muno 'foolish (of a child)'

                     (cf. serawe) 

munung: 'face' mupun (CB): 'grandchild' mura? (JU): 'transfer' murat: to bleed'(cf. dara?) muru?: 'wash (dishes, hands)' (cf. pupu?) mutuh: 'to ask, request something (an object, favor, etc.)' muut: 'turn around and go back' muyuh: 'you (pl.)'; dimuyuh (idih-muyuh?) 'yours' (cf. medueh, meteluh)


nakan: 'small jackfruit variety' (see bua?) namuk: 'sandfly' (cf. tukung) nanan (CB): 'kind of stinging insect' nana?: 'pus' nani: 'sing'; menani (me-nani?) (CB) 'sing' (Malay loan) nange: 'there (where the receiver is, esp. the receiver of a letter)' (cf. ngi engi,


na?an: 'soon, near future (within the same day or hour)' (cf. riak) na?eh: 'just now, a moment ago' na?em: 'no, none, don't have' na?ul: 'throw away rubbish' nari (CB): 'to measure' natad: 'open ground near the longhouse where children like to play spinning


nateng: 'dammar, tree resin (burned in torches)' nauk(CB): 'boiling, starting to bubble' naun: 'steam: neh1: 'already' neh2: '3sg, agent and possessor; him, his, her, hers. It, Its' nekebher: 'to flap or flutter a few times, as a bird flapping its wings before

                   flying' (cf. kelab) 

nekilo1: 'frighten birds or animals (but not people)' nekilo2: 'just barely glimpsed, as a fish under the water' nepipin (JU): 'arrange, put in order' nesinge?: 'to low, of a carabao' nipi: 'thin, of materials (less common than lipi, q.v.)' nituh: 'section of housepost from the betadan upward' nuba?: 'cooked rice' nuk: 'thing, substance'; n. kenen 'food'; n. midih 'property' nukat: 'to dig' nulis: 'write' (Malay loan; cf. ayud, urit) nutud (CD): to burn' nutun (CB): 'to taste, try, challenge' nutuy (JU): 'in travelling, stay behind someone who is slow to keep him or her


nabang: 'ambush someone' ngadan: 'name'; petengadan (pep-te-ngadan) name-calling, calling one another

                    names'; tengadan (te-ngadan)'be given a name' 

ngadel: 'dull, blunt' ngae: 'slow' ngae?1: 'hummingbird' ngae?2: 'pity. sympathy'; ng. ada? 'pity his soul!; pity him!' ngai: 'sound of a baby crying (onom.)' ngale: 'fox' nganga: 'gape (n)': nganga nganga 'open and close the mouth habitually or

                     involuntarily' (cf. tenganga) 

ngangeh: 'mouth of bubuh fish trap' ngapeh: 'where?' (cf. ebheh) nga?eh: 'horn' (cf.(aduk) ngaro: 'snatch something from someone' ngaur (CO): 'remove rice from the pot and wrap it after cooking' ngayung: 'recite an incantation over a sick: person to assist his recovery' ng?: 'sound of a carabao lowing (onom.)' ngegha, (CB): 'rub the eyes, as when something has gotten inside and is

                          irritating them' 

ngeh: 'ligature linking lower numerals with pulu?, ratu or ribuh' ngelab (CB): 'apply a poultice' ngele: 'pick the weak point in the line when fighting the enemy' ngeletad: 'make a backward stroke with the leg, of fighting cocks' (cf, teletad) ngelima: 'rub something between the palms of the hands' ngen1: 'and, with' ngen2: 'particle preceding personal names and titles' ngen3: 'to' ngena? (JU): 'recede, of the river' (cf. lena?) ngeraad: 'to hunt with spears and dogs' (cf. badil) ngeramit: 'scratch hard (as a cat)' (cf. karo) ngered: 'old (people): almost ripe (fruits)' (cf. dadan, ma?un) ngeren : 'pregnant, of people (more polite than malih)' ngerimer (JU): 'to wrinkle something' ngerurung: 'rinse, wash out the mouth or other object that is not scrubbed out

                     with the hand, but rather rinsed out with water' 

ngi: 'at; of; about'; ngengi (ngi engi) there (not near addressee)'; ngineh (ngi ineh)

               'there, at that place (near addressee)':  nginih (ngi inih) 

'here, at this place':

               ngilai (ngi lai) 'outside' 

ngiet: 'tie something so that it hangs down' ngiil: 'to lick' gilad: 'several days ago (further in the past than malem)' ngilan1(PM): 'crop of a bird' ngilan2: 'pith of a corn kernal' ngilang (JU): to soothe, as a crying child' ngilud (CB): 'burn a pig to remove the skin' ngitel: 'to pinch' nguam (CB): 'strike someone with a downward blow of the fist' (cf. bukut) ngudeh: 'why?' ngukab (CD): 'to open, as a door' ngukul: 'poke into any kind of hole with a finger, stick, etc.' ngupat: 'answer, respond to (an accusation, etc.)' ngusu: 'push something .into' ngusul : let or cause something to slide lengthwise (as someone sliding a log

                down a hill)' 


paad: level cut as at the end of a piece of lumber: same': paad paad 'go

             together, match, be compatible (as personalities)'; piaaad 

(p-in-aad) 'friend'

            (cf.  kawan) 

padang (CB): 'field' pade: 'riceplant, rice in the field' padek: 'rice husk (collective term)' (cf. kulit) padi: 'brush against when passing' paet(CB): 'chisel' (cf. pa?et) pajar (CB): 'lean on'; majar (ng-pajar)'to lean something on something else' pajung: 'flattery'; majung (ng-pajung) 'to flatter' pakay (CB): 'to use' (Malay loan) pakel (IV): 'decorative binding of palm fibers worn just under the knee' pako?: 'a nail' (loan, probably from Malay); mako? (ng-pako?)'to nail, ham-

                      mer a nail' 

pakub: 'a knock; a striking together (of two objects, people colliding, etc,)';

                     makub (ng-pakub) 'knock, strike together' 

palad (CB): 'palm of the hand, sole of the foot' (cf. penalad) palang: 'a cross' palid: 'blown away, as papers in the wind'; malid (ng-palid) 'let something be

                     blown away by the wind' (malid pade 'winnow rice by 

tossing the grains in

                     the air on a winnowing basket so that the wind will carry 

off the husk') pali? (JU): 'heal' (cf. kibet) paluh: 'flour made from the pith of a thorny palm, acquired in trade from the


pana1: 'slingshot' pana2 (PM): 'sweat' pana?: 'act of spinning, as a top'; mana? (ng-pana?) 'spin a top at someone

                      else's top to hit it and knock it out; hit and sting, of 

bees in a swarm striking

                      one by one'; pinana? (p-in-ana?) 'preterite passive of 

mana?' s panid (JU): 'enough; everyone' (cf. sukup) pango: 'bald' (cf. butal) pa?eh: 'thigh' pa?en1: 'areca palm and nut' pa?en2: 'carrying stick'; ma?en (ng-pa?en) 'carry something long on the


pa?et: 'chisel (cf. paet) pa?id: 'duster, mop, anything used to wipe; accidental wiping':; ma?id

                      (ng-pa?id) 'wipe'; pina?id (p-in-a?id) 'was wiped by' 

pa?it: 'bitter' pa?uh: 'fern that grows by the riverbank' paran (CB): 'traditional upper class in native social system' (cf. demulun) para?: latex' parir: 'poison (any poison, including that for blowpipe darts)'; marir (ng-parir)

                    'poisonous' (cf. rasun) 

pasiw: 'sold'; masiw (ng-pasiw) 'to sell', pepasiw (pep-pasiw) 'to trade, sell to

                     one another';  pinasiw (p-in-asiw) 'was sold by' 

patar: 'alluvial plain' pate (CB): 'death of someone'; perepate (pere-pate) 'commit suicide ' (cf.


patot(IV): 'to mate (used for animals; vulgar if used for humans)' (cf. kenu?,


patuk: 'sharpened and of arrow; arrowhead (of tin)' patun: 'a dam' pau: 'broken through (as a dam), penetrated'; mau (ng-pau) 'push a sharp point


pawat: large fruit bat, flying fox' (cf. kekelit) payeh: 'watery, swamp-like area in the jungle' payo: 'deer'; p. runga? 'kind of deer with horns' (cf. tela?o) payung(CB): 'umbrella' (Malay loan; cf. ra?ung) pe-: 'locative particle' (see dingi, liang, luun, ma?un, mudhih) pebhed1(CB): 'end, extremity' (cf. peped) pebhed2(JU); 'way of tying' kepebhed (ke-pebhed) 'act of tying' (cf. bebhed) pedala?(JLJ): 'casting net'; medala? (ng-pedala?) 'to fish with casting net'

                        (Malay loan) 

pededhan (CB): 'put something on top of something else, as the right foot on

                          the left knee when silting with legs crossed' 

pedekan (PM): 'to choke' pedeket: 'hem, stitch, line of sewing on clothes'; medeket (ng-pedeket) 'to

                          sew'; pindeket (p-in-e-deket) 'was sewed by' 

pedhi?: 'salty' peduh: 'gall, gall bladder'; na?em pedhuh 'idiotic, inconsiderate' pegamung: 'twisted or tangled, as thread or hairs'; megamung (ng-pegamung)

                     'twist or tangle up something, as thread or hairs'; 

pinggamung (p-in-egarnung)

                     'was twisted or tangled by' (cf. garnung, with which this 

form probably is


peh1: 'so far, til now' peh2: 'so that, in order to' pejadi? (CB): 'to promise' (Malay loan) pekaa? (JU): 'changing, as a name'; mekaa? (ng-pekaa?) 'change' pekak: 'cackling'; nepekak (ne-pekak) 'to cackle, of a hen about to lay an egg

                        or a chicken that is disturbed'                         

pekakang : 'be spread apart, stretched (of forceps that have been forced apart)';

                        mekakang (ng-pekakang) 'to spread or force apart, of 

forceps' pekatu: 'always, continually' (see katu) pekekeng: 'feel stiff or numb after sitting in one position for a long time' pekeneh(JU): 'believe' pekubul: 'cockfight' pekupat: 'turned contrary to the way it should be, as a person lying with his

                         head at the foot of the bed': mekupat (ng-pekupat) 

'turn in a contrary

                         manner':  pekupat  (pep-kupat)  'turn  each  other  in 
a  contrary  manner': 
                         pingkupat (p-in-ekupat) 'was turned in a contrary 

manner by' pekutang: lying across or athwart, as a tree that has fallen across a path':

                        ng-pekutang 'to stretch (a cable, etc.) across 

something' pelaba: 'very, extremely' (cf. laba) pelian: (see luang) j peliw (JU): 'slip from dne's grasp, as something that is too heavy to hold' (cf.


pelubed: 'bent opposite to its usual position, as when the wind bends the

                        leaves of a riceplant back, or when one's wrist is bent 

back; go to and fro in

                        one day' 

peman (CB): 'feed'; meman (ng-peman) 'to feed (as a mother feeding her

                        child)': pepeman (pep-peman) 'feed one another'; piman 

(p-e-i-man) 'was

                        fed by'              I 

penagan (CB): 'chopping board for meal' penalad: 'palm. sole', penalad kukud 'sole of the foot': penalad tidhu? 'palm

                         of the hand' (cf. palad) 

penan: 'to feed'; berek penan 'domesticated pig (= pig to be fed)'

peno (CB): 'theft; way of stealing'; meno (ng-peno) 'to steal'; pino (p-e-i-no)

                         'was stolen by' 

penu?: 'full (as a basket or bag)'; menu? (ng-penu?) 'to fill': pinu?(p-i-

                          nu?) 'preterite passive of menu?' 

pengeh: 'finishing': mengeh (ng-pengeh) 'to finish something'; pingeh (pe-i-ngeh)

                          'preterite passive of mengeh' (cf. abi) 

penginud (JU): 'speech, parable, story with a moral' pengi?: 'clitoris'(cf.atet) peng?ulo?: 'goverment-appointed leader' (Malay loan) pepag (CB): 'a slap'; kepepag (ke-pepag) 'slapping (as a habitual aclion)';

                          mepag (g-pepag) 'lo slap', pemepag (peng-pepag) 

'thing used for slapping';

                          pepegag (pep-pepag) 'slap one another'; pipag 

(p-e-i-pag) 'was slapped by' pepang (CB): 'path made by hacking vegetation as one moves through the

                          jungle';  mepang (ng-pepag)  'make a path by hacking 

vegetation as one

                          moves through the jungle' 

peped: 'end (of a thing or action)' (of. pebhed) pepen: 'a cover, hidden'; mepen (ng-pepen) to cover (of food, etc.. but not of

                          a hole); to hide,': pipen (p-e-i-pen) 'was covered 

by, was hidden by' pepepak: 'game in which people try to run through a rectangular area that is

                          marked off into squares, each of which is guarded by 

someone' (connected

                           with epak?) 

perada?: 'to jog. trot' (cf. upun) pera?it1: 'raft'; mera?it (ng-pera?it) 'make a raft' (cf. ra?it) pera?it2: 'strong thunder, thunderclap' peraruh (PM): 'mistaken', (cf. raruh) peredhep: 'close the eyes' (cf. nekedhep) peregai? (JU): 'talk at the same time (of two or more persons)' perek: 'oppressive, as a stuffy or overcrowded room; squeezing';

merek (ng- 
                           perek) 'to squeeze'; pirek (p-e-i-rek) 'was squeezed 

by' peretak: 'beans': p. jawa 'French beans'; p. kadang 'long beans'; p.dari small

                            green beans' 

pering : 'dry, of material; thirsty'; mering (ng-pering) 'to dry something' (cf.

                            rikan, tekeru? ) 

pesih: (?); pesih pesih 'pretend not to notice, ignore' peta: 'strings of beads worn around the head; skullcap of straw or animal skin

                           with or without beadwork, worn only by women' 

petad (JU): 'separation)': metad (ng-petad) 'to separate': pitad (pe-i-tad) 'was

                           separated by' 

petedheng(CB): 'trip and fall' (cf. luka?, tutu?) petuk: 'bump one's head when standing up in a room with a low ceiling; reach

                           a desired level when lifting something' 

pian: 'want, desire'; pinian (p-in-ian) 'a want, a desire' pia.?: 'a sneeze'; nepia? (ne-pia?) 'to sneeze' pika?(JU): 'to limp' piket (JU): 'catch up with someone' (cf. tiket) pilang: 'striped, banded'; pili?(CB): 'choice'; mill? (ng-pili?) 'choose'; penili? (p-in-ili?) 'was chosen


pino: 'needle' pingit: 'cheek' pingur: 'echo'; tepingur (te-pingur) 'echoing back and forth, full of echoes';

                             petepingur (pep-te-p}r)ur )  'make echoes at each 

other by calling out':

                             (marginal form); simpingur (t-in-e-pir)ur) 'was 

used to make echoes, of a

                             thing' (marginal form) 

pipeh: 'having two sides, as right and left, inside and outside, etc.' pipih: 'interior wall in the longhouse' pirek: 'silver' (probably a Malay loan) pirit: 'small bird with long beak, rice bird' pisang: 'knicked (of the lip of a jar), torn (of an earlobe in which a decorative

                             plug has been inserted and then torn loose)' 

puar(CB): (see denganeh) pudik (CB): 'way or manner of swimming using full arm strokes'; mudik

                            (ng-pudik) 'swim using full arm strokes' 

pudut: 'shape, form, appearance'; mudut (ng-pudut) 'shape something': pi-

                            nudut (p-in-udut) 'was shaped by'; doo? pudut 

'beautiful' (cf. ribed) pued: 'navel' puer: 'incision, as in an operation'; muer (ng-puer) 'operate, perform surgery' puet: 'buttocks; bottom, foundation'; lobng.puet 'anus' (cf. tebhing) pulang (JU): 'ringworm' (cf, kuri) puluh: 'bamboo shoot' pulung: 'forest'; lem pului) 'in the forest' (cf. ulur)) pulu?: 'ten' pulut: 'glue, anything sticky; bird lime (obtained from the fruit of a tree)';

                            mulut (ng-pulut) 'to glue something, stick 

something on something else',

                            pinulut (p-in-ulut) 'was glued to' 

puneng: 'headwaters of a river' pupud: 'tracking of an animal'; mupud (ng-pupud) 'to track an animal';

                            pinupud (p-in-upud) 'was tracked by'; pupud pupud 

'change one's mind on

                            second thought' 

pupun (CB): 'covering of something, as with a cloth or by heaping soil on it';

                            mupun (ng-pupun) 'cover something' 

pupu?: 'thing used to hit; hitting, washing of clothes'; kepupu? (ke-pupu?)

                            'washing (as a habitual activity)'; mupu? 

(ng-pupu?)'to hit, wash clothes';

                            pemupu? (peng-pupu?) 'thing used to hit'; pepu?en 

(pupu?-en) 'things to

                            be washed: aorist passive of mupu?' (cf. bupu?, 

muru?) pu?ar (CD): 'leaning back'; mu?ar (ng-pu?ar) 'lean back' pu?un: 'origin, beginning (used when introducing a conversational subject);

                            first'; p. kayuh 'base of a tree (part which enters 

the ground)' puteng : 'fall short'; muteng (ng-puteng) 'make something fall short'; p. linuh

                            'impatient'; p.nial  quick-tempered' 

putuh: 'asking'; mutuh (ng-putuh) 'to ask'; pinutuh (p-in-utuh) 'was asked by' putul: 'broken, of something hard'; mutul (ng-putul) 'to break'; pinutul

                             (p-in-utul) 'was broken  by' (cf. putut) 

putut: 'broken, of something long and soft, as string'; mutut (ng-putut) 'break';

                             pinutut (p-in-utut)  'was broken by'; p. niat 

'taking one's last breath' (cf.


puun (CB): 'hill' (cf. apad, buduk) puung: 'animal'

R raka?: 'dead twig' (cf. da?ar) ramay(CB): lively, enjoying oneselF (Malay loan) ramut: 'fibrous roots, as of grass, rice or coconut trees' (cf. labing, uat) ranih: 'harvest'; peranih (pe-ranih) 'the small bamboo or iron knife used to

                  remove the rice head in harvesting; the harvest'; rinanih 

(r-in-anih) 'was

                  harvested by' 

ra?an: 'gradual slope, side of a mountain' (cf. alid, beribhi) ra?en: light (in weight )' ra?it: 'raft'; ngera?it (ng-ra?it) 'travel by raft (cf. pera?it) ra?o: 'cork; palm wood used to make blowpipe darts' ra?ung (CB): large round sun hat: umbrella' rara(CB): 'rafters' raruh (JU): losing of something'; neraruh (ne-raruh) loit'; ngeraruh (ng-raruh)

                   'lose something' (cf . peraruh) 

raseb: loud banging noise, as that made when children run on planks of


rasun: 'poison' (Malay loan; cf. parir) ratu: 'milk (human and animal)' ratan: leaking (as a roof or bucket)' ratu: 'hundred' raut: 'to play' rawir: 'long, as a story, road, piece of string' rayeh: 'big, great, physically large (people or things); old (people)' rebun: 'smoke' redhan: 'passed out, fainted' (cf. kenaman) redhang: 'the structure formed by parasitic plants on a tree; a structure built

                   around a fruiting tree to protect it from marauders'; 

ngeredhang (ng-redhang)

                   'put branches around the trunk of one's fruit trees when 

they are bearing, or

                   pile up rubbish in the fork of a branch so that others will 

not climb the trees

                   to take the fruit' (cf. deredhang) 

redheng: 'spit'; ngeredheng (ng-redheng) 'to spit' (cf. edheng2, lidha?) redhep: 'closing of the eyes'; ngeredhep (ng-redhep) 'close the eyes' (cf.


rekeb: 'cave in, collapse' reken: 'coiled rattan base on which hot cooking pots are placed' renaran: 'storage places for split firewood above the fireplace' renareng: 'beam on which the beladan is laid in the construction of the


repured: 'spot on the head out of which the hair grows spirally' rera?: 'ant'; r. ane 'termite' rerek: 'incision made in the throat of a pig or chicken in slaughtering'; ngererek

                  (ng-rerek) 'to slaughter pigs or chickens by slitting the 

throat'; rirek

                  (r-e-i-rek)  'was slaughtered by' 

rereng1: 'charcoal (general term)' (cf. adeng) refereng2 (PM): 'putting down'; ngerereng) (ng-rereng) 'put something down' riak: 'future (beginning the following day)' (cf. na?an) ribed: 'pretty, beautiful, of people or things' (cf. pudut) ribun: 'thousand' riek: 'a cough' rier: 'to turn, roll'; berier (be-rier) 'to roll as a result of human agency, as a

                     log being rolled by someone'; binrier (b-in-e-rier) 'was 

rolled by'; ngerier

                     (ng-rier) 'to turn or roll something'; remier (r-em-ier) 

'to roll without the

                     intervention of a human agent, as a log rolling of its own 

accord; turn the

                     body': rinier (r-in-ier) 'was turned or rolled by' (cf. 

lubid) rikan: 'dry, of the weather' (cf. pering, tekeru?) rimod: 'smile'; nerimod (ne-rimod) 'to smile'; rimod rimod 'always smiling rina?e: 'health, condition' rinuh: 'winnowing basket rigit: 'money' (Malay loan) ri?er: 'neck' riruh: 'to laugh'; ngeriruh (ng-riruh) 'make someone laugh'; periruh (pep-riruh)

                       laugh at one another; make one another laugh'; riniruh 

(r-in-inib) 'preterite

                       passive of ngeriruh' 

rua? (see ate1) rudang: 'dead leaf (cf. da?un) rudap: 'sleep'; ngerudap (ng-rudap)' put someone (as a child) to sleep': rinudap

                      (r-in-udap) 'was put to sleep by': me rudap 'stay 

overnight in the jungle, as

                      when out hunting' (cf. lu?eh)     ' 

rudheng: 'phlegm (after it has been expectorated): slimy, oily' rugi? (CB): loss, as in business'; ngerugi? (ng-rugi?) 'outwit someone in

                      business, profit at someone else's expense' (Malay loan) 

rugu?: 'thin (people, animals)' ruked: (?): ruked ruked 'forever' ruma?: longhouse' (rumah kadang is now used to distinguish the longhouse

                     from a single-family house) 

runga?: (see payo) runguh: 'head of rice plant' (cf. genuluh) ru?eb: 'waterfall' rurug (JU): 'come out all at once, as when pouring something that you want to

                      come out slowly'; ngerurug (ng-rurug) 'pour out something 

(as fruit from a

                      basket)';  remurug  (r-em-urug)  'to  drop,  of leaves  

or fruit'; renurug

                      (r-en-urug) 'preterite passive of ngerurug' (cf. mayad) 

rurut (JU): 'descent'; remurut (r-em-urut) 'come down, descend' ruuk: 'chest' ruyung: 'share a residence with'; lun ruyung (JU) 'relatives'

S sabun: 'soap' (Malay loan) saget(CB): 'quick, quickly' sait: 'a lover, paramour; pesait (pep-sait) 'to have sexual intercourse (refined

                     expression)' (cf. kenu?, patot) 

sakol: 'hoe': nakol (ng-sakol) 'to hoe': sinakol (s-in-akol) 'was hoed by'

                     (Malay loan; cf. sakul) 

sakul (CD): (Malay loan; cf. sakol) sala? (CD): 'wrong' sangen: 'menses, menstruation' sapa?: 'shirt; s. talun 'buckskin shirt traditionally worn by both sexes' (cf.


sapeh: 'which, which one?' saweng: 'inability to see in the dark, night blindness sedero: 'watering, tearing (of the eyes) segerang (CB): 'ribs' segeri: 'weak and thin because of sickness segumen: 'eaves of the longhouse roof sekenan: 'remember' selanguy: 'snake (generic)' selapang: 'shotgun' (Malay loan) selengu: 'to shed, of a snake shedding its old skin' (cf. lengu) selengut: 'bamboo nose flute' seli: 'lower part of the leg to the outside of the shin bone (considered es-

                      pecially vulnerable to attack in a fight) 

seluar (CB): 'trousers ' (Malay loan) selubid: lie down' selud: 'to slide (as children sliding down a hillside)' semera?: 'lead(metal)' senape (CB): 'kind of rice cake made by boiling rice wrapped in leaves' sena?ih: 'intestines' (cf. sina?ih) senien (JU): 'catfish' senula? (CB): (see sinula?) senu?eh: 'right side' pesenu?eh (pe-senu?eh) 'on the right side' sepa?(CB): 'betel quid' serawe(JU): 'behavior'; raruh serawe 'mad, crazy, insane' (cf. muno) seremu?uh: 'appearance'; da?et seremu?uh 'bad appearance, untidy' seruga: Heaven (Malay loan) sia?: 'red' ; s. bareh 'very red, glowing red' siguk: 'tobacco' (cf. luko?) silen: 'string used to hold up swimming trunks, etc.' silo: 'shiny, of the surface of a lake, table, etc.' (cf. milo) simun: 'cucumber'; simun ala? 'watermelon' sinan (CB): 'female (animals)' (see berek, cf. dedhur) sina?: 'mother, MZ, FZ (address/vocative)' (cf. sineh, tesineh) sina?ih: 'intestines, guts'; na?em sina?ih 'cowardly' (cf. sena?ih) sineh1 (CB): 'demonstrative particle' sineh2: 'title for married women; Mrs.' (see sina?, tesineh) sinula?: 'bereaved'; dedhur s. 'widow', dela?i s. 'widower' sinung: 'happy: successful, as a wealthy man or a student in school' (JU): s. tu-

                      nang  'very happy', kesinungan (ke-sinung-an) 'happiness' 

(Malay loan?: cf.


singel: 'constriction, narrowing' sipen: 'rice that is already on the iung and in the process of being pounded' si?er: 'eyesight'; ni?er (ng-si?er)'.see,look at'; pe-si?er (pep-si?er) 'look at one

                      another';  sini?er  (s-in-i?er)  'was seen, looked at 

by'; siren (si?er-en)

                      'aorisi passive of ni?er' 

si?it: 'few'; s. ketuh atuk 'very few' (cf. i?it, kedi?it) siri: 'straight, upright (indefinitely long)'; niri (ng-siri)'straighten' (cf. tuped) sirut: 'tapering' sising: 'ring for the finger' (loan, probably from Malay: cf. tising) suk(CB): 'relative propoun: which, who' sukup (CB): 'enough' (Malay loan; cf. panid ) sunga?ing (JU): 'incubus-ike spirit believed to visit people at night and to sap their


surat: letter' (Malay loan)

T taang(CB): 'way of mannert of adzing'; naang (ng-taang) 'work wood with an adze';

                      sinaang (t-in-aang) 'pteterite passive of naang' 

taban: 'running away with someone or something, kidnapping, elopement':

                   naban (ng-taban) 'run away with, kidnap, elope with'; 

petaban (pep-taban)

                   'elope'; tebanen (taban-en) 'aorist passive of naban' 

tabang (CD): long bamboo section used to carry water' tabat: 'medicine'; nabat (ng-tabat) 'to treat with medicine, apply medicine to';

                    sinabat (t-in-abat) 'was treated with medicine by' 

tabi?: 'greet, shake hands' tabuh: 'container made from a dried gourd' (see bua?) tabun: 'heap, pile: covered by something that is heaped up; heap of dead grass

                    used by snakes as a nest'; nabun (ng-tabun) 'to heap, pile 

up'; sinabun

                    (t-in-abun) 'was helped or piled up by' 

tadem: 'sharp, of a blade'; nadem (ng-tadem) 'sharpen' (cf. asa, i?ir) taduk: 'rhinoceros horn (used for medicinal purposes)' (cf. nga?eh) tadur: 'small bridge, as a single log bridge'; nadur (ng-tadur) 'make a bridge:

                     cross a bridge'; tadur idhung) 'bridge of the nose' (cf. 

ebheng) tae?: 'feces'; nae?(ng-tae?) 'defecate' (considered substandard byGT) (cf.

                     bube?, ta?ih) 

ta?it(PM): 'wait'; peta?it(pep-ta?it) 'wait for each other' (cf. a?it) taka: 'lake' taked: 'popliteal space, area behind the knee' takub: 'a patch, pocket'; nakub(ng-takub) 'to patch as torn clothing' takung: 'pond' (cf. lepeku?) talun: 'buckskin, treated deerskin used for clothing' taman (CB): leader of a pack of animals' tama?: 'father. FB, MB (address/vocative)' (cf. tetameh) tana?: 'earth; soil; world': t.pulut, t.sia? 'clay' tanek: 'boiling of water, cooking': nanek (ng-tanek) 'to boil water, cook

                      vegetables (GT), boil meat (CB)' (cf. laak, lened) 

tanern: 'grave: sunken, as a stick in the ground': nanem (ng-tanern) 'bury':

                      sinanem (t-in-anem) 'was buried by' 

tanep: 'sink, set, disappear from view' (?); t. edho 'direction of the setting sun' tange: 'a cry'; nange (ng-tange) 'to cry'; petange (pep-tange) 'make one another cry':

                      tange tange 'crying' 

tapih1: 'honeycomb' tapih2: 'protective lining placed in a container (as a leaf in a cooking pot)' tapi?: 'cow' (Malay loan) tapung: 'man's traditional feather headdress' ta?eng: 'mouth (people and animals)' ta?ih1: 'feces' (see tae?); ta?ih lalid 'earwax' (see ading) ta?ih2: 'intimate term of address by a man or woman to a boy, meaning

                        something like "my son'" (cf. emu?) 

ta?ut: 'fear'; meta?ut (ng-pe-ta?ut) 'frighten, make afraid'; peta?ut (pe-ta?ut)

                        'frighten, make afraid'; pinta?ut (p-in-e-ta?ut) 'was 

frightened by'; tema-

                        ?ut (t-em-a?ut) 'seem afraid' 

tara: 'storage place for husked rice, salt, etc. above the fireplace' taru?: 'making, doing; putting, placing'; naru? (ng-taru?) 'make, do; put.

                        place'; senaru? (t-in-aru?) 'was done by, was put or 

placed by'(cf. tu?en) tasa?: 'damaged; dismantled'; nasa?(ng-tasa?) 'to damage; to dismantle' tauh: 'we (pl. incl.)'; ditauh (idih tauh?) 'ours' (cf. kamih, kediweb, keteluh,

                        kiteh, teluh) 

tebangan(JU): 'scale for weighing things' (Malay loan) tebel: 'head or the penis, glans penis' tebiring (JU): 'veering at an angle (of a bird or plane turning flight)'; nebiring

                        (ng-tebirig) 'to veer' 

tebha?: 'thorn' tebhar: 'salary, wages'; nebhar (ng-tebhar) 'to pay'; sibhar (t-e-i-bhar) 'was paid

                          by'; tebaren (tebhar-en) 'aorist passive of nebhar' 

tebhek: 'mark left by piercing; pierced (as by needle, knife)'; nebhek (ng-teqbhek)

                      'pierce, stab'; pe-tebhek (pep-teb*ek) 'stab one 

another'; sibhek (t-e-i-bhek)

                       'was pierced by, was stabbed by'; t. apo 'traditional 

competition in which

                       young men held a dart and jumped up to see who could 

leave the highest

                       mark on the slanting roof of the longhouse' 

tebheng: 'the felling of a large tree'; nebheng (ng-tebeng) 'to fell a large tree, as

                       in clearing a swidden'; tebengen (tebheng-en) 'aorist 

passive of nebheng)' tebhing: 'buttocks' (cf. puer) tebhuh: 'sugarcane' tebhung: 'small cloth bag used to hold tobacco' tebhu?: 'clearing in the forest'; nebhu? (ng-tebhu?) 'cut down forest'; tebu?en

                       (tebhu?-en) 'aorist passive of nebhu?' 

tedhak: (see bua?) tedhan: 'act of leaving something behind'; ketedhan (ke-tedhan) left behind

                       (accidentally); nedhan (ng-tedhan) leave behind; sidhan 

(t-e-i-dhan) was

                       left behind by' (cf. keted, where ketedhan could be 

interpreted as /keted-en/) tedheh: leaving behind': nedheh (ng-tedheh) 'leave behind'; tidheh (te-i-dheh)

                       'was left behind by' 

teguk: 'external throat' (cf. telenan) teh: 'tea' (English loan; cf. eti) tegeker(JU): 'shivering' (cf. egheng) teghang(CB): 'rainbow' teh: 'sentence particle probably conveying emphasis' tekap: 'search (n.)'; nekap (ng-tekap) 'to search, look for'; pe-tekap (pep-tekap)

                        'search for one another'; sikap (t-e-i-kap) 'preterite 

passive of nekap' teka?ok(CB): 'rooster' tekeku?: 'to squat'; nekeku? (ng-tekeku?) 'force someone to squat' teken (CB): 'boat pole, punting pole'; neken (ng-teken) 'to pole a boat'; sineken

                         (t-in-eken) 'was poled by' 

tekering (CB): 'dry' (cf. pering, rikan, tekeru?) tekeru?: 'dry, of pond or river that has dried up, of moist food gone dry, etc. ' (cf.

                         pering, rikan, tekering) 

tekila?: 'chips produced from working wood with an adze' tekip (JU): 'sarong worn by girls' tekub: 'a knock from underneath (as on the floor of the longhouse by someone

                          under the house with a stick); nekub (n-tekub) 'to 

knock from underneath',

                          sikub (t-e-i-kub) 'an uppercut (in fighting)' 

tekul: 'spoon'; nekul (ng-tekul) 'to spoon out something' telang1: (see bulu?) telang2: 'flavorless, without salt, flat lasting' tela?: 'act of hurling, throwing'; nela? (ng-tela?) 'hurl, throw (a javelin)'; sila?

                  (t-e-i-la?) 'was hurled or thrown by'; tela?-en 'aorist 

passiveof nela?' tela?o: 'the barking deer: Cervulus muntjac' (ct. payo) teleka?: 'small frog' (cf. beraok, esit) telen: 'swallow'; neleng (ng-telen) 'to swallow'; silen (t-e-i-len) 'was swallow-

                  ed by'; telenan (telen-an) 'internal throat'; telenen 

(telen-en) 'aorist passive

                  of nelen' 

teletad: 'spur of a fighting cock (the natural spur, not a metal one)' (cf.


teliad (JU): 'to slip' teluh: 'three; we (trial incl.)' (cf. kamih, kediweh, keteluh, kiteh, tauh) telu?a?(CB): 'a bird. the crow' temalem: (see alem, malem) temapad: lie with the body next to the fire instead of lying with the feet

                       toward the fire' 

temar: 'stemless plant with tough leaves used as basket straps' tema?ud: 'back of the foot behind and above the ball of the heel'; urat tema?ud

                       'Achille's tendon' 

temedhur: 'rhinoceros' temeh: 'fall short and slip, as when leaping across a ditch, or when climbing

                       stairs  to slip and fall  back to the previous step' 

temengang(JU): 'hornbill' (cf. menengang, metuy) teneb: 'cool, cold'; neneb (ng-teneb) 'make something cool or cold' tenuran1: 'testicle' (cf. ilung terur) tenuran2: 'nest'; t. la?al ' chicken's nest' (cf. arar) tenganuh: 'weaving': nenganuh (ng-tenganuh) 'to weave'; singanuh (t-in-enganuh)

                           'was woven by' 

tenganga?(JU): 'open the mouth' tenga? (JU): 'window' tengeb(JU): 'riverbank' tepi (CB): 'smooth, as a surface' (cf, lana) tepu?: 'grandparent (address/vocative for any member of grandparental

                        generation)' (cf. epun, tetepuh) 

teraka?: 'thin, emaciated' (said by GT to derive from raka? 'dead twig',

                        though this may be a folk etymology) 

terem: 'sink': nerem (ng-terem) 'force someone under water'; temeren

                        (i-em-erem) 'dive under water' 

terep (JU): 'tree that is similar to the breadfruit, with latex-like sap' terur: 'egg; testicle'; t. la?al 'chicken egg'; t. manuk 'birdegg' terutung: 'porcupine' tesineh: 'mother (reference)'; t. menaken 'MS, FS' (cf. sina?, sineh) tetad: 'marks made by an adze'; netad (ng-tetad) 'cut with a striking motion

                        toward the body, as when standing with legs apart and 

swinging the bikung

                        from in front of the body to between the legs' 

tetameh: 'father (reference)'; t. menaken 'MB, FB' (cf. tama?) tetel1: 'clay hearth in the longhouse' tetel2 (CB): 'packing something in tightly'; netel (ng-tetel) 'pack something in


tetepuh: 'grandparent (term of reference)'; t. dela?ih 'grandfather', t. dedhur

                         'grandmother' (cf. epun, tepu?) 

tidha?: 'footprint': nidha? (ng-tidha?) 'step on'; teda?en (tidha?-en) 'aorist

                         passive of nidha?'; sinidha? (t-in-idha?) 'was stepped 

on' tidhuk: 'bill, beak of a bird; act of pecking, poking lightly'; nidhuk (ng-tidhuk)

                        'to peck, of a bird, poke lightly with the finger' 

tidhul: 'pointer, indicator'; nidhul (ng-tidhul) 'to point at something' tidhu?: 'hand' tikan: 'honeybee' (see bua?) tikel:(?); nikel (ng-tikel) 'just manage to get by, barely survive; to handle, take

                        care of (a problem); able to take something (as food 

after one has been

                        sick)'; tikel-tikel 'constantly struggle for a living 

(as a poor man who barely

                        gets by)'; sikelen (tikel-en) 'aorist passive of nikel' 

tiket (CB): 'overtake someone, as in walking along a path' (cf. piket) tilem (CB): 'mattress' (Malay loan) tising(CB): (cf. sising) tuak: 'nape of the neck' tubang(JU): 'kind of small wild cat that preys on chickens' tubeh: 'a vine and the poison from its roots used to stun fish: derris root' tuda?: 'how much?; how many'; t. buleng 'few' tudo: 'to sit'; nudo (ng-tudo) 'to set, put something in a place (as a pot on a

                         table)'; sinudo (t-ln-udo) 'was set down by' (cf. 

bekaar) tuduk (CB): 'stick placed as a warning along the path'; nuduk (ng-tuduk) 'to


tudung: 'shoulder' tudu?: 'seven' tudhu?: 'salt'; nudhu? (ng-tudhu?) 'add salt to something' tuked: 'prop, support siick used to hold open the cover of the ikab' tuked: 'slope of a nuiuntain'; t. apad 'on the slope of a mountain range;

                          temuked (t-em-uked) 'climb a mountain; steep (?)'; 

tekedhen (tuked-en) 'the

                          sides or slopes of a i lountain (cf. irang) 

tukung: 'mosquito' (cf. namuk) tukup: 'a wooden support used to hold up an old house; also, a wooden support

                        beam inside the longhouse' 

tulang: 'bone; tulang da?un 'spine of a leaf' tulu1: 'correct '(cf.muned) tulu2: 'if' (cf. ulu) tulud (CB): 'act of flying'; temulud (t-em-ulud) 'to fly' tulung (CB): 'help,assistance'; nulung (ng-tulung) 'to help.assist' (Malay loan?) tumeh: 'small white clothes louse' (cf. adel, gesimel, kutuh, li?a) tumid: 'ball of the heel' tumuh: 'tree sp.' (see kayuh) tunan: 'short handle' (cf. edha?, etun) tunang: 'happy' (cf. sinung) tunap(JU): 'window' tuno: 'a hammer'; nuno (ng-tuno) to hammer (as iron, in making tools)' tunuh: 'burning, roasting'; nunuh (ng-tunuh) 'to burn, to roast' tunuk: 'surrender' tunge (CB): 'here, to this place (cf. ngi iinih) tungul(CB): 'parang, machete, bush knife' tuped: 'standing up straight, upright, erect (of physical objects and people)'

                       nuped (n-tuped) 'to build, construct' (cf. siri) 

tu?ed: 'tree stump' tu?eh: 'hard,strong (of materials)' (cf. galih, kail) tu?en: 'make, do' (cf. naro, taru?) tu?i: 'getup'; nu?i (ng-tu?i) 'raise up' (cf. kulat2) tu?uh: 'true, really; too, very' turuk: 'bamboo water conduit turun: 'the manner in which one comes down (slow, fast, etc.)'; nurun (ng-

                       turun) 'to lower, as a ladder; swoop down to attack or 

grab something (as

                       hawks or eagles); to swarm, of  bees'; temurun 

(t-em-urun) 'jump down,

                       descend (as a ladder}' (cf. urur) 

turu?: 'a command. older, directive'; nuru? (ng-turu?) 'to command'; sinuru?

                      (t-in-uru?) 'was commanded by, was ordered by'(cf. atur, 

uru?) tutuk1: 'short stone or wooden pestle for pounding meat or vegetables, act of

                      hammering or pounding'; nutuk (ng-tutuk) 'to hammer (as a 

peg into the

                      ground); to pound (chili peppers, ginger, etc.) with a 

pestle' (cf. aluh) tutuk2 (CB): 'act of throwing something at someone or something"; nutuk

                      (ng-tutuk) 'throw something at someone or something (as 

in throwing

                       pebbles at a target) 

tutun: 'shallow' tutu?: 'fall from a height (people, birds, fruits, leaves)'; nutu? (ng-tutu?)

                       'drop something from a height' (cf. luka?, petedheng) 

tuung (JU): 'a box'

U uab: 'a yawn'; 'nguab (ng-uab) 'to yawn' uan (JU): 'have' uang1: 'howling of a dog' nguang (ng-uang) 'to howl,of a dog' (cf. manang) uang2: 'muscles, flesh; contents of something' (cf. isi?) uang3 (?): uang uang (JU) 'naked' (cf. lupa) uar(CB): 'kind of vine uat1: 'thatching needle, needle used to stitch the palm-leaf thatch in making a


uat2: large root, taproot' (cf. labing, ramut) uay: 'traditional Kelabit axe for cutting wood' ubih: 'tuber'; u. kayuh 'tapioca'; u. sia? 'sweet potato' ubit: 'mark left by a bite'; ngubit (ng-ubit) 'to bite' (cf. ketep) ubud (CB): 'soft edible pith of plants, esp. sago: palm cabbage'; ngubud

                   (ng-ubud)  'make ubud' 

ubur: 'praise (n.)'; ngubur (ng-ubur) 'to praise' ubhir: 'to overflow (of a bucket left under running water, etc.)'; mubhir

                    (m-uhhir) 'overflowing, overflowed' 

ubho: to stop; to rest, take a break' (cf. udhu?) udan: 'rain'; mudan (ern-udan) 'to rain'; u. bariw 'strong wind, storm wind' udang: 'shrimp' udeng1: 'decorative earplug' udeng2: 'stay'; da?et udeng 'homesick' (lit. 'bad stay'); mudeng (em-udeng) 'to

                     stay, dwell'; pepudeng (pep-udeng) 'stay with one's 

fiancee's family for

                     some time before marriage (reciprocal)' 

uduh: 'grass' (generic; cf. budud) udung (CB): 'top, end'; u. kayuh 'top of a tree, part of a tree from the first

                       branching upwards'  . 

udur: 'standing': mudur (em-udur) 'stand up from sitting or lying; standing

                     up'; udur udur 'lingering around doing nothing; standing 

up and sitting

                    down repeatedly' 

udhih: 'rudder, stern of a boat; rear' (cf. julung, mudhih) udhu?: 'cease, stop an activity (as walking or working)' ue (CB): 'rattan' ueg: 'wild fruit tree with seeds like rubber tree seeds' ugam: 'mat' (cf. epin) ugha? (CB): 'stop suddenly, of whirling motion (children in play whirling

                       around to make themselves dizzy, a spinning top that 

falls over, etc.)' ugheng: 'spinning without wobbling (usually with reference to spinning tops)' ul: 'cheer ullcrcd when passing arak or burak rice wine in a festival' uih: 'lsg. subject and object; I, me'; duih (idih-uih) 'mine uit (CB): 'way of banging'; mult (ern-uit) 'to bring'; nuit (en-uit) 'was

                        brought by'; pemuilt(pem-uil)  'thing used to bring'; 

pepuit (pep'uit) 'bring

                        one another' 

uka (JU): 'dawn'; muka (m-uka) (JU): 'early' (cf. lekedhang) ukep (JU): 'spend a night in the forest' uker: 'shining, of a cat's eyes in the dark, chatoyant' ukul1: 'disposition' (cf. eghul, mukul) ukul2 (CB): 'stick for stirring rice' uku?: 'dog' uled: 'maggot, caterpillar': u. reken 'kind of non-poisonous worm that coils

                          in a circle' (cf. kelatih, kereruar) 

uleng: 'alone' ;uleng uleng 'preferring to be alone' (cf. buleng) ulih1(JU): 'sprout, shoot, bud' ulih2(PM): 'wax from a honeycomb, candlewax' ulu (CB): 'if' (cf. tulu2) ulud: 'words, tale, story'; lud-en (ulud-en) 'is being talked about or told, will

                           talk about or tell; ulud ulud 'be in conversation' 

uluh: 'head' ulun: 'life'; mulun (m-ulun) living, alive' ulung: 'grove,thicket, cluster of trees' (cf. pulung) umak: 'climb stairs, ascend' umeng: 'cricket' (see kato) uned: 'middle' (cf. lemuned) unih: 'sound'; munih (em-unih) 'make a sound' upa: 'splitting': mupa (ern-upa) 'to split (intr.)', ngupa (ng-upa) 'spilt some-

                            thing into large pieces' (cf. bilak) 

upan: 'bait, chicken feed', ngupan (ng-upan) to feed animals'

upa?: 'yam' uper (CB): 'bark fiber used for making rope': nuper (in-uper) 'string or rope

                             made from bark fiber'; nguper (ng-uper) 'make rope 

from bark fiber': puren

                            (uper-en) 'aorist passive of nuper'; sinuper 

(sin-uper) 'preterite passive of


upih: 'a dream': mupih (em-upih) 'to dream' upit: 'tweezers' upun: 'to run' (cf. perada?) u?i: 'lever' u?it: 'top incisor teeth' u?ut: 'straw for sipping rice wine: smoking pipe; sucking'; nu?ut (ne-u?ut)

                              'smoke a pipe: suck'; uten (u?ut-en) 'aorist 

passive nu?ut'; sinu?ut

                              (sin-u?ut) 'preterite passive of nu?ut' 

urat1: 'vein, vessel, tendon' urat2: 'wound'; murat (m-urat) 'wounded'; ngurat (ng-urat) 'to wound'; pepurat

                              (pep-urat) 'wound one another' 

urek (CB): 'handspan, measurement from tip of thumb to tip of outstretched

                              forefinger'; ngurek (ng-urek) 'measure' (cf. 

depeh) urit: line. dash, writing' (cf. ayud, nulis) urung1: large dried gourd used for storing husked rice (unhusked rice is stored

                             in the lepo pade)' 

urung: 'bamboo segment forming part of a wind-powered scarecrow used in

                              the paddy field' 

uru?: 'order, directive' (cf. turu?) urur1(JU): 'cluster (of fruit)' urur2 (CB): 'act of lowering something'; ngurur (ng-urur) 'lower something

                              slowly by rope' (cf. turun) 

usag: 'piece of something that has broken'; musag (em-usag) 'break into

                             pieces, as a clod of earth, or a ball of rice or 

ginger powder' useng: 'cat' useb: 'want something very much, desire intensely' used1: 'a cold, catarrh; mucus that is coughed up: euphemism for any sickness' used2: 'marrow' (possibly = used1; cf. isud) usuk: 'loose, of loincloth strings or anything else that is tied up' utak: 'urge, determination, resolve' utap (CB): 'shield' uta?: 'vomit (n.)'; nuta? (in-uta?) 'was vomited by'; nguta? (ng-uta?)'to vomit' utang: 'debt' (Malay loan; cf. baleh) utek: 'brain' uud(CB): 'retreat, withdraw' ;u. udih 'move backward' uyut (CB): 'small carrypg basket worn on the back' (cf. babeh, bakang, binen)


waluh: 'eight' (cf. aluh)